## The TeX Live Guide—2022

March 2022

### Contents

1.5 Getting help

3.1.1 Unix
3.1.2 Mac OS X
3.1.3 Windows
3.1.4 Cygwin
3.1.5 The text installer

3.2.3 Directories
3.2.4 Options

3.4.5 ConTeXt Mark IV

7.1.1 Path sources
7.1.2 Conﬁg ﬁles
7.1.3 Path expansion
7.1.4 Default expansion
7.1.5 Brace expansion

7.2.1 The ﬁlename database

7.2.3 Examples of use
7.2.4 Debugging actions

7.4 $TEXMFDOTDIR 9.1 Past 9.1.1 2003 9.1.2 2004 9.1.3 2005 9.1.4 2006–2007 9.1.5 2008 9.1.6 2009 9.1.7 2010 9.1.8 2011 9.1.9 2012 9.1.10 2013 9.1.11 2014 9.1.12 2015 9.1.13 2016 9.1.14 2017 9.1.15 2018 9.1.16 2019 9.1.17 2020 9.1.18 2021 9.3 Future ### 1 Introduction #### 1.1 TeX Live and the TeX Collection This document describes the main features of the TeX Live software distribution — TeX and related programs for GNU/Linux and other Unix ﬂavors, Mac OS X, and Windows systems. You may have acquired TeX Live by downloading, or on the TeX Collection DVD, which TeX user groups distribute among their members, or in other ways. Section 2.1 brieﬂy describes the contents of the DVD. Both TeX Live and the TeX Collection are cooperative eﬀorts by the TeX user groups. This document mainly describes TeX Live itself. TeX Live includes executables for TeX, LaTeX2e, ConTeXt, Metafont, MetaPost, BibTeX and many other programs; an extensive collection of macros, fonts and documentation; and support for typesetting in many diﬀerent scripts from around the world. For a brief summary of the major changes in this edition of TeX Live, see the end of the document, section 9 (p. 81). #### 1.2 Operating system support TeX Live contains binaries for many Unix-based platforms, including GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Cygwin. The included sources can be compiled on platforms for which we do not provide binaries. As to Windows: Windows 7 and later are supported. Windows Vista may still mostly work, but TeX Live will no longer even install on Windows XP or earlier. TeX Live includes no 64-bit executables for Windows, but the 32-bit executables should run on 64-bit systems. But see https://tug.org/texlive/windows.html for options to add 64-bit binaries. See section 2.1 for alternate solutions for Windows and Mac OS X. #### 1.3 Basic installation of TeX Live You can install TeX Live either from DVD or over the Internet ( https://tug.org/texlive/acquire.html). The net installer itself is small, and downloads everything requested from the Internet. The DVD installer lets you install to a local disk, but you cannot run TeX Live directly from the TeX Collection DVD (or the TeX Collection or TeX Live .iso images). You can prepare a runnable installation on, e.g., a USB stick (see section 4.2). Installation is described in later sections (p. 12), but here is a quick start: • For Unix, the installation script is install-tl; on Windows, one should instead invoke install-tl-windows. The installer will operate in a graphical mode given the option -gui (default for Windows and older Mac OS X), or a text mode given the option -gui=text (default for everything else). • One of the installed items is the ‘TeX Live Manager’ program, named tlmgr. Like the installer, it can be used in both GUI mode and in text mode. You can use it to install and uninstall packages and do various conﬁguration tasks. #### 1.4 Security considerations To the best of our knowledge, the core TeX programs themselves are (and always have been) extremely robust. However, the contributed programs in TeX Live may not reach the same level, despite everyone’s best eﬀorts. As always, you should be careful when running programs on untrusted input; to improve safety, use a new subdirectory or chroot. This need for care is especially urgent on Windows, since in general Windows ﬁnds programs in the current directory before anything else, regardless of the search path. This opens up a wide variety of possible attacks. We have closed many holes, but undoubtedly some remain, especially with third-party programs. Thus, we recommend checking for suspicious ﬁles in the current directory, especially executables (binaries or scripts). Ordinarily they should not be present, and deﬁnitely should not normally be created by merely processing a document. Finally, TeX (and its companion programs) are able to write ﬁles when processing documents, a feature that can also be abused in a wide variety of ways. Again, processing unknown documents in a new subdirectory is the safest bet. Another aspect of security is ensuring that downloaded material has not been changed from what was created. The tlmgr program (section 5) will automatically perform cryptographic veriﬁcation on downloads if the gpg (GNU Privacy Guard) program is available. It is not distributed as part of TeX Live, but see https://texlive.info/tlgpg/ for information about gpg if need be. #### 1.5 Getting help The TeX community is active and friendly, and most serious questions end up getting answered. However, the support is informal, done by volunteers and casual users, so it’s especially important that you do your homework before asking. (If you prefer guaranteed commercial support, you can forgo TeX Live completely and purchase a vendor’s system; https://tug.org/interest.html#vendors has a list.) Here is a list of resources, approximately in the order we recommend using them: Getting started If you are new to TeX, the web page https://tug.org/begin.html gives a brief introduction to the system. CTAN If you are looking for a particular package, font, program, etc., CTAN is the place to start looking. It is a huge collection of all TeX-related items. The catalog entries also tell you whether a package is available for TeX Live or MiKTeX. See https://ctan.org. TeX FAQ The TeX FAQ is a compendium of answers to all sorts of questions, from the most basic to the most arcane. It is available on the Internet through https://texfaq.org. TeX Web Resources The web page https://tug.org/interest.html has many TeX-related links, in particular for numerous books, manuals, and articles on all aspects of the system. support archives Principal support forums for TeX include the LaTeX community site at https://latex.org, the q&a site https://tex.stackexchange.com, the Usenet newsgroup news:comp.text.tex, and the mailing list texhax@tug.org. Their archives have years of past questions and answers for your searching pleasure, via, for the latter two, http://groups.google.com/group/comp.text.tex/topics and https://tug.org/mail-archives/texhax. And a general web search never hurts. asking questions If you cannot ﬁnd an answer, you can post to http://latex-community.org/ and https://tex.stackexchange.com/ through their web interfaces, to comp.text.tex through Google or your newsreader, or to texhax@tug.org through email. But before you post anywhere, please read this FAQ entry, to maximize your chances of getting a useful answer: https://texfaq.org/FAQ-askquestion. TeX Live support If you want to report a bug or have suggestions or comments on the TeX Live distribution, installation, or documentation, the mailing list is tex-live@tug.org. However, if your question is about how to use a particular program included in TeX Live, please write to that program’s maintainer or mailing list. Often running a program with the --help option will provide a bug reporting address. The other side of the coin is helping others who have questions. All the above resources are open to anyone, so feel free to join, start reading, and help out where you can. ### 2 Overview of TeX Live This section describes the contents of TeX Live and the TeX Collection of which it is a part. #### 2.1 The TeX Collection: TeX Live, proTeXt, MacTeX The TeX Collection DVD comprises the following: TeX Live A complete TeX system to be installed to disk. Home page: https://tug.org/texlive/. MacTeX for Mac OS X (currently named macOS by Apple, but we continue to use the older name in this document), this adds a native Mac OS X installer and other Mac applications to TeX Live. Home page: https://tug.org/mactex/. proTeXt An enhancement of the MiKTeX distribution for Windows, proTeXt adds a few extra tools to MiKTeX, and simpliﬁes installation. It is entirely independent of TeX Live, and has its own installation instructions. Home page: https://tug.org/protext/. CTAN A snapshot of the CTAN repository ( https://ctan.org/). CTAN and protext do not follow the same copying conditions as TeX Live, so be careful when redistributing or modifying. #### 2.2 Top level TeX Live directories Here is a brief listing and description of the top level directories in a TeX Live installation. bin The TeX system programs, arranged by platform. readme-*.dir Quick overview and useful links for TeX Live, in various languages, in both HTML and plain text. source The source to all included programs, including the main Web2C-based TeX distributions. texmf-dist The principal tree; see TEXMFDIST below. tlpkg Scripts, programs and data for managing the installation, and special support for Windows. For documentation, the comprehensive links in the top-level ﬁle doc.html may be helpful. The documentation for nearly everything (packages, formats, fonts, program manuals, man pages, Info ﬁles) is in texmf-dist/doc. You can use the texdoc program to ﬁnd documentation wherever it is located. This TeX Live documentation itself is in texmf-dist/doc/texlive, available in several languages: #### 2.3 Overview of the predeﬁned texmf trees This section lists the predeﬁned variables specifying the texmf trees used by the system, and their intended purpose, and the default layout of TeX Live. The command tlmgr conf shows the values of these variables, so that you can easily ﬁnd out how they map to particular directories in your installation. All of the trees, including the personal ones, should follow the TeX Directory Structure (TDS, https://tug.org/tds), with all its myriad subdirectories, or ﬁles may not be found. Section 3.4.6 (p. 43) describes this in more detail. The order here is the reverse order in which the trees are searched, that is, later trees in the list override earlier ones. TEXMFDIST The tree which holds nearly all of the ﬁles in the original distribution—conﬁguration ﬁles, scripts, packages, fonts, etc. (The main exceptions are the per-platform executables, which are stored in a sibling directory bin/.) TEXMFSYSVAR The (site-wide) tree used by texconfig-sys, updmap-sys and fmtutil-sys, and also by tlmgr, to store (cached) runtime data such as format ﬁles and generated map ﬁles. TEXMFSYSCONFIG The (site-wide) tree used by the utilities texconfig-sys, updmap-sys, and fmtutil-sys to store modiﬁed conﬁguration data. TEXMFLOCAL The tree which administrators can use for system-wide installation of additional or updated macros, fonts, etc. TEXMFHOME The tree which users can use for their own individual installations of additional or updated macros, fonts, etc. For each user, this variable points to their own individual directory. TEXMFVAR The (personal) tree used by texconfig, updmap-user and fmtutil-user to store (cached) runtime data such as format ﬁles and generated map ﬁles. TEXMFCONFIG The (personal) tree used by the utilities texconfig, updmap-sys, and fmtutil-sys to store modiﬁed conﬁguration data. TEXMFCACHE The tree(s) used by ConTeXt MkIV and LuaLaTeX to store (cached) runtime data; defaults to TEXMFSYSVAR, or (if that’s not writable), TEXMFVAR. The default layout is: system-wide root can span multiple TeX Live releases (/usr/local/texlive by default on Unix): 2021 A previous release. 2022 The current release. bin i386-linux GNU/Linux binaries (32-bit) ... universal-darwin Mac OS X binaries x86_64-linux GNU/Linux binaries (64-bit) win32 Windows binaries texmf-dist TEXMFDIST and TEXMFMAIN texmf-var TEXMFSYSVAR, TEXMFCACHE texmf-config TEXMFSYSCONFIG texmf-local TEXMFLOCAL, intended to be retained from release to release. user’s home directory ($HOME or %USERPROFILE%)

.texlive2021

Privately generated and conﬁguration data for a previous release.

.texlive2022

Privately generated and conﬁguration data for the current release.

texmf-var

TEXMFVAR, TEXMFCACHE

texmf-config

TEXMFCONFIG

texmf

TEXMFHOME Personal macros, etc.

#### 2.4 Extensions to TeX

Knuth’s original TeX itself is frozen, apart from rare bug ﬁxes. It is present in TeX Live as the program tex, and will remain so for the foreseeable future. TeX Live also contains several extended versions of TeX (also known as TeX engines):

e-TeX

adds a set of new primitives (related to macro expansion, character scanning, classes of marks, additional debugging features, and more) and the TeX--XE T extensions for bidirectional typesetting. In default mode, e-TeX is 100% compatible with ordinary TeX. See texmf-dist/doc/etex/base/etex_man.pdf.

pdfTeX

builds on the e-TeX extensions, adding support for writing PDF output as well as DVI, and many non-output-related extensions. This is the program invoked for many common formats, e.g., etex, latex, pdﬂatex. Its web site is http://www.pdftex.org/. See texmf-dist/doc/pdftex/manual/pdftex-a.pdf for the manual, and texmf-dist/doc/pdftex/samplepdftex/samplepdf.tex for example usage of some of its features.

LuaTeX

adds support for Unicode input and OpenType/TrueType- and system fonts. It also incorporates a Lua interpreter ( https://lua.org/), enabling solutions for many thorny TeX problems. When called as texlua, it functions as a standalone Lua interpreter. Its web site is http://www.luatex.org/, and the reference manual is texmf-dist/doc/luatex/base/luatex.pdf.

(e)(u)pTeX

have native support for Japanese typesetting requirements; pTeX is the basic engine, while the e- variants add e-TeX functionality and u- add Unicode support.

XeTeX

adds support for Unicode input and OpenType/TrueType- and system fonts, implemented using standard third-party libraries. See https://tug.org/xetex.

Omega (Omega)

is based on Unicode (16-bit characters), thus supports working with almost all the world’s scripts simultaneously. It also supports so-called ‘Omega Translation Processes’ (OTPs), for performing complex transformations on arbitrary input. Omega is no longer included in TeX Live as a separate program; only Aleph is provided:

Aleph

combines the Omega and e-TeX extensions. See texmf-dist/doc/aleph/base.

#### 2.5 Other notable programs in TeX Live

Here are a few other commonly-used programs included in TeX Live:

bibtex, biber

bibliography support.

makeindex, upmendex, xindex, xindy

index support.

dvips

convert DVI to PostScript.

dvipdfmx

convert DVI to PDF, an alternative approach to pdfTeX (mentioned above).

xdvi

DVI previewer for the X Window System.

dviconcat, dviselect

cut and paste pages from DVI ﬁles.

psselect, psnup,

PostScript utilities.

pdfjam, pdfjoin,

PDF utilities.

context, mtxrun

ConTeXt and PDF processor.

htlatex,

tex4ht: (LA )TeX to HTML (and XML and DocX and more) converter.

### 3 Installation

#### 3.1 Starting the installer

To begin, get the TeX Collection DVD or download the TeX Live net installer. See https://tug.org/texlive/acquire.html for more information and other methods of getting the software.

Net installer, .zip or .tar.gz:

Download from CTAN, under systems/texlive/tlnet; the url http://mirror.ctan.org/systems/texlive/tlnet should redirect to a nearby, up-to-date, mirror. You can retrieve either install-tl.zip which can be used under Unix and Windows, or the considerably smaller install-unx.tar.gz for Unix only. After unpacking, install-tl and install-tl-windows.bat will be in the install-tl subdirectory.

Net installer, Windows .exe:

Download from CTAN as above, and double-click. This starts up a ﬁrst-stage installer and unpacker; see ﬁgure 1. It gives two choices: “Install” and“Unpack only”.

TeX Collection DVD:

go to the DVD’s texlive subdirectory. Under Windows, the installer normally starts automatically when you insert the DVD. You can get the DVD by becoming a member of a TeX user group (highly recommended, https://tug.org/usergroups.html), or purchasing it separately ( https://tug.org/store). You can burn your own DVD for TeX Live from the ISO image downloaded from CTAN. You can also mount the ISO directly on most systems. After installing from DVD or ISO, if you want to get continuing updates from the Internet, please see section 3.4.3.

The same installer program is run, whatever the source. The most notable diﬀerence between the two is that with the net installer, what you end up with is the packages that are currently available. This is in contrast to the DVD and ISO images, which are not updated between the major public releases.

If you need to download through proxies, use a ~/.wgetrc ﬁle or environment variables with the proxy settings for Wget ( https://www.gnu.org/software/wget/manual/html_node/Proxies.html), or the equivalent for whatever download program you are using. This does not matter if you are installing from the DVD or ISO image.

The following sections explain installer start-up in more detail.

##### 3.1.1 Unix

Below, > denotes the shell prompt; user input is bold. The install-tl program is a Perl script. The simplest way to start it on a Unix-compatible system is as follows:

> perl /path/to/installer/install-tl
(Or you can invoke /path/to/installer/install-tl if it stayed executable, or cd to the directory ﬁrst, etc.; we won’t repeat all the variations.) You may have to enlarge your terminal window so that it shows the full text installer screen (ﬁgure 2).

To install in GUI mode (ﬁgure 4), you’ll need to have Tcl/Tk installed. Given that, you can run:

> perl install-tl -gui

The old -wizard and -perltk/-expert options now do the same thing as -gui. For a complete listing of the various options:

> perl install-tl -help

Special considerations for Cygwin: Unlike other Unix-compatible systems, Cygwin does not by default include all of the prerequisite programs needed by the TeX Live installer. See section 3.1.4.

##### 3.1.2 Mac OS X

As mentioned in section 2.1, a separate distribution is prepared for Mac OS X, named MacTeX ( https://tug.org/mactex). We recommend using the native MacTeX installer instead of the TeX Live installer on Mac OS X, because the native installer makes a few Mac-speciﬁc adjustments, in particular to allow easily switching between diﬀerent TeX Live releases on Macs, using the so-called TeXDist data structure.

MacTeX is ﬁrmly based on TeX Live, and the main TeX trees and binaries are precisely the same. It adds a few extra folders with Mac-speciﬁc documentation and applications.

##### 3.1.3 Windows

If you are using the unpacked downloaded zip ﬁle, or the DVD installer failed to start automatically, double-click install-tl-windows.bat.

You can also start the installer from the command-prompt. Below, > denotes the prompt; user input is bold. If you are in the installer directory, run just:

> install-tl-windows

Or you can invoke it with an absolute location, such as:

> D:\texlive\install-tl-windows
for the TeX Collection DVD, supposing that D: is the optical drive. Figure 3 displays the initial basic screen of the GUI installer, which is the default for Windows.

To install in text mode, use:

> install-tl-windows -no-gui

For a complete listing of the various options:

> install-tl-windows -help

Note. Add a .bat extension if the same directory also contains install-tl-windows.exe. This will not normally be the case (unless you’ve mirrored tlnet directory locally).

##### 3.1.4 Cygwin

Before beginning the installation, use Cygwin’s setup.exe program to install the perl and wget packages if you have not already done so. The following additional packages are recommended:

• fontconfig [needed by XeTeX and LuaTeX]

• ghostscript [needed by various utilities]

• libXaw7 [needed by xdvi]

• ncurses [provides the clear command used by the installer]

##### 3.1.5 The text installer

Figure 2 displays the main text mode screen under Unix. The text installer is the default on Unix.

This is only a command-line installer; there is no cursor support at all. For instance, you cannot tab around checkboxes or input ﬁelds. You just type something (case-sensitive) at the prompt and press the Enter key, and then the entire terminal screen will be rewritten, with adjusted content.

The text installer interface is this primitive in order to make it run on as many platforms as possible, even with a minimal Perl.

##### 3.1.6 The graphical installer

The default graphical installer starts out simple, with just a few options; see ﬁgure 3. It can be started with

> install-tl -gui
The Advanced button gives access to most of the options of the text installer; see ﬁgure 4.

The perltk/expert and wizard GUI options now invoke the regular graphical installer.

#### 3.2 Running the installer

The installer is intended to be mostly self-explanatory, but following are a few notes about the various options and submenus.

##### 3.2.1 Binary systems menu (Unix only)

Figure 5 displays the text mode binaries menu. By default, only the binaries for your current platform will be installed. From this menu, you can select installation of binaries for other platforms as well. This can be useful if you are sharing a TeX tree across a network of heterogeneous machines, or for a dual-boot system.

##### 3.2.2 Selecting what is to be installed

Figure 6 displays the TeX Live scheme menu; from here, you choose a “scheme”, which is an overall set of package collections. The default full scheme installs everything available. This is recommended, but you can also choose the basic scheme for just plain and LaTeX, small for a few more programs (equivalent to the so-called BasicTeX installation of MacTeX), minimal for testing purposes, and medium or teTeX to get something in between. There are also various specialized and country-speciﬁc schemes.

You can reﬁne your scheme selection with the ‘collections’ menu (ﬁgure 7, shown in GUI mode for a change).

Collections are one level more detailed than schemes — in essence, a scheme consists of several collections, a collection consists of one or more packages, and a package (the lowest level grouping in TeX Live) contains the actual TeX macro ﬁles, font ﬁles, and so on.

If you want more control than the collection menus provide, you can use the TeX Live Manager (tlmgr) program after installation (see section 5); using that, you can control the installation at the package level.

##### 3.2.3 Directories

The default layout is described in section 2.3, p. 9. The default installation directory is /usr/local/texlive/2022 on Unix and C:\texlive\2022 on Windows. This arrangement enables having many parallel TeX Live installations, such as one for each release (typically by year, as here), and you can switch between them merely by altering your search path.

That installation directory can be overridden by setting the so-called TEXDIR in the installer. The GUI screen for this and other options is shown in ﬁgure 4. The most common reasons to change it are either lacking enough disk space in that partition (the full TeX Live needs several gigabytes), or lacking write permission for the default location (you don’t have to be root or administrator to install TeX Live, but you do need write access to the target directory).

On Windows, you normally do not need to be an administrator to create C:\texlive\2022 (or, more generally, %SystemDrive%\texlive\2022).

The installation directories can also be changed by setting a variety of environment variables before running the installer (most likely, TEXLIVE_INSTALL_PREFIX or TEXLIVE_INSTALL_TEXDIR); see the documentation from install-tl --help (available online at https://tug.org/texlive/doc/install-tl.html) for the full list and more details.

A reasonable alternative destination is a directory under your home, especially if you will be the sole user. Use ‘~’ to indicate this, as in ‘~/texlive/2022’.

We recommend including the year in the name, to enable keeping diﬀerent releases of TeX Live side by side. (You may wish to also maintain a version-independent name, such as /usr/local/texlive-cur, via a symbolic link, which you can then repoint after testing the new release.)

Changing TEXDIR in the installer will also change TEXMFLOCAL, TEXMFSYSVAR and TEXMFSYSCONFIG.

TEXMFHOME is the recommended location for personal macro ﬁles or packages. The default value is ~/texmf (~/Library/texmf on Macs). In contrast to TEXDIR, here a ~ is preserved in the newly-written conﬁguration ﬁles, since it usefully refers to the home directory of the user running TeX. It expands to $HOME on Unix and %USERPROFILE% on Windows. Special redundant note: TEXMFHOME, like all trees, must be organized according to the TDS, or ﬁles may not be found. TEXMFVAR is the location for storing most cached runtime data speciﬁc to each user. TEXMFCACHE is the variable name used for that purpose by LuaLaTeX and ConTeXt MkIV (see section 3.4.5, p. 43); its default value is TEXMFSYSVAR, or (if that’s not writable), TEXMFVAR. ##### 3.2.4 Options Figure 8 shows the text mode options menu. More info on each: use letter size instead of A4 by default: The default paper size selection. Of course, individual documents can and should specify a speciﬁc paper size, if desired. execution of restricted list of programs: As of TeX Live 2010, execution of a few external programs is allowed by default. The (very short) list of allowed programs is given in the texmf.cnf. See the 2010 news (section 9.1.7) for more details. create all format ﬁles: We recommend leaving this option checked, to avoid unnecessary problems when creating formats dynamically. See the fmtutil documentation for more details. install font/macro tree: Download/install the documentation and source ﬁles included in most packages. Unchecking is not recommended. create symlinks in standard directories: This option (Unix only) bypasses the need to change environment variables. Without this option, TeX Live directories usually have to be added to PATH, MANPATH and INFOPATH. You will need write permissions to the target directories. This option is intended for accessing the TeX system through directories that are already known to users, such as /usr/local/bin, which don’t already contain any TeX ﬁles. Do not overwrite existing ﬁles on your system with this option, e.g., by specifying system directories. The safest and recommended approach is to leave the option unchecked. after install, set CTAN as source for package updates: When installing from DVD, this option is enabled by default, since usually one wants to take any subsequent package updates from the CTAN area that is updated throughout the year. The only likely reason to disable it is if you install only a subset from the DVD and plan to augment the installation later. In any case, the package repository for the installer, and for updates after installation, can be set independently as needed; see section 3.3.1 and section 3.4.3. Windows-speciﬁc options, as displayed in the advanced GUI interface: adjust searchpath This ensures that all programs will see the TeX Live binary directory on their search path. add menu shortcuts If set, there will be a TeX Live submenu of the Start menu. There is a third option ‘Launcher entry’ besides ‘TeX Live menu’ and ‘No shortcuts’. This option is described in section 4.1. File associations The options are ‘Only new’ (create ﬁle associations, but do not overwrite existing ones), ‘All’ and ‘None’. install TeXworks front end When all the settings are to your liking, you can type ‘I’ in the text interface, or press the ‘Install’ button in the GUI, to start the installation process. When it is done, skip to section 3.4 to read what else needs to be done, if anything. #### 3.3 Command-line install-tl options Type > install-tl -help for a listing of command-line options. Either - or -- can be used to introduce option names. These are the most common ones: -gui Use the GUI installer if possible. This requires Tcl/Tk version 8.5 or higher. This was distributed with Mac OS X, until Monterey; after that, you’ll need to install Tcl/Tk yourself, if you don’t choose to use the MacTeX installer. Tcl/Tk is distributed with TeX Live on Windows. The legacy options -gui=perltk and -gui=wizard are still available but invoke the same GUI interface; if Tcl/Tk is not available, installation continues in text mode. -no-gui Force using the text mode installer. -lang LL Specify the installer interface language as a standard (usually two-letter) code. The installer tries to automatically determine the right language but if it fails, or if the right language is not available, then it uses English as a fallback. Run install-tl --help to get the list of available languages. -portable Install for portable use on, e.g., a USB stick. Also selectable from within the text installer with the V command, and from the GUI installer. See section 4.2. -profile ﬁle Load the installation proﬁle ﬁle and do the installation with no user interaction. The installer always writes a ﬁle texlive.profile to the tlpkg subdirectory of your installation. That ﬁle can be given as the argument to redo the exact same installation on a diﬀerent system, for example. Alternatively, you can use a custom proﬁle, most easily created by starting from a generated one and changing values, or an empty ﬁle, which will take all the defaults. -repository url-or-directory Specify package repository from which to install; see following. -in-place (Documented only for completeness: Do not use this unless you know what you are doing.) If you already have an rsync, svn, or other copy of TeX Live (see https://tug.org/texlive/acquire-mirror.html) then this option will use what you’ve got, as-is, and do only the necessary post-install actions. Be warned that the ﬁle tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb may be overwritten; saving it is your responsibility. Also, package removal has to be done manually. This option cannot be toggled via the installer interface. ##### 3.3.1 The -repository option The default network package repository is a CTAN mirror chosen automatically via http://mirror.ctan.org. If you want to override that, the location value can be a url starting with ftp:, http:, https:, file:/, or a plain directory path. (When giving an http:, https: or ftp: location, trailing ‘/’ characters and/or a trailing ‘/tlpkg’ component are ignored.) For example, you could choose a particular CTAN mirror with something like: http://ctan.example.org/tex-archive/systems/texlive/tlnet/, substituting a real hostname and its particular top-level CTAN path for ctan.example.org/tex-archive. The list of CTAN mirrors is maintained at https://ctan.org/mirrors. If the given argument is local (either a path or a file:/ url), compressed ﬁles in an archive subdirectory of the repository path are used (even if uncompressed ﬁles are available as well). #### 3.4 Post-install actions Some post-installation may be required. ##### 3.4.1 Environment variables for Unix If you elected to create symlinks in standard directories (described in section 3.2.4), then there is no need to edit environment variables. Otherwise, on Unix systems, the directory of the binaries for your platform must be added to the search path. (On Windows, the installer takes care of this.) Each supported platform has its own subdirectory under TEXDIR/bin. See ﬁgure 5 for the list of subdirectories and corresponding platforms. Optionally, you can also add the documentation man and Info directories to their respective search paths, if you want the system tools to ﬁnd them. The man pages might be found automatically after the addition to PATH. For Bourne-compatible shells such as bash, and using Intel x86 GNU/Linux and the TeX Live default directory setup as an example, the ﬁle to edit might be$HOME/.profile (or another ﬁle sourced by .profile), and the lines to add would look like this:

PATH=/usr/local/texlive/2022/bin/x86_64-linux:$PATH; export PATH MANPATH=/usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-dist/doc/man:$MANPATH; export MANPATH
INFOPATH=/usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-dist/doc/info:$INFOPATH; export INFOPATH For csh or tcsh, the ﬁle to edit is typically$HOME/.cshrc, and the lines to add might look like:

setenv PATH /usr/local/texlive/2022/bin/x86_64-linux:$PATH setenv MANPATH /usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-dist/doc/man:$MANPATH
setenv INFOPATH /usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-dist/doc/info:$INFOPATH If you’re not on an x86_64-linux platform, use the appropriate platform name; similarly, if you didn’t install in the default directory, change the directory name. The TeX Live installer reports the full lines to use at the end of installation. If you already have PATH settings somewhere in your startup ﬁles, merge in the TeX Live directories as you see ﬁt. ##### 3.4.2 Environment variables: Global conﬁguration If you want to make these changes globally, or for a user newly added to the system, then you are on your own; there is just too much variation between systems in how and where these things are conﬁgured. Our two hints are: 1) you may want to check for a ﬁle /etc/manpath.config and, if present, add lines such as MANPATH_MAP /usr/local/texlive/2022/bin/x86_64-linux \ /usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-dist/doc/man And 2) check for a ﬁle /etc/environment which may deﬁne the search path and other default environment variables. In each (Unix) binary directory, we also create a symbolic link named man to the directory texmf-dist/doc/man. Some man programs, such as the standard Mac OS X man, will automatically ﬁnd that, obviating the need for any man page setup. ##### 3.4.3 Internet updates after DVD installation If you installed TeX Live from DVD and then wish to get updates from the Internet, you need to run this command—after you’ve updated your search path (as described in the previous section): > tlmgr option repository http://mirror.ctan.org/systems/texlive/tlnet This tells tlmgr to use a nearby CTAN mirror for future updates. This is done by default when installing from DVD, via the option described in section 3.2.4. If there are problems with the automatic mirror selection, you can specify a particular CTAN mirror from the list at https://ctan.org/mirrors. Use the exact path to the tlnet subdir on that mirror, as shown above. ##### 3.4.4 System font conﬁguration for XeTeX and LuaTeX XeTeX and LuaTeX can use any font installed on the system, not just those in the TeX trees. They do these via related but not identical methods. On Windows, fonts shipped with TeX Live are automatically made available to XeTeX by font name. On Mac OS X, supporting font name lookups requires additional steps; please see the MacTeX web pages ( https://tug.org/mactex). For other Unix systems, the procedure to be able to ﬁnd the fonts shipped with TeX Live via font name follows. To facilitate this, when the xetex package is installed (either at initial installation or later), the necessary conﬁguration ﬁle is created in TEXMFSYSVAR/fonts/conf/texlive-fontconfig.conf. To set up the TeX Live fonts for system-wide use (assuming you have suitable privileges), proceed as follows: 1. Copy the texlive-fontconfig.conf ﬁle to /etc/fonts/conf.d/09-texlive.conf. 2. Run fc-cache -fsv. If you do not have suﬃcient privileges to carry out the steps above, or if you want to make the TeX Live fonts available to only one user, you can do the following: 1. Copy the texlive-fontconfig.conf ﬁle to ~/.fonts.conf, where ~ is your home directory. 2. Run fc-cache -fv. You can run fc-list to see the names of the system fonts. The incantation fc-list : family style file spacing (all arguments are literal strings) shows some generally interesting information. ##### 3.4.5 ConTeXt Mark IV Both the ‘old’ ConTeXt (Mark II) and the ‘new’ ConTeXt (Mark IV) should run out of the box after TeX Live installation, and should need no special attention as long as you stick to using tlmgr for updates. However, because ConTeXt MkIV does not use the kpathsea library, some setup will be required whenever you install new ﬁles manually (without using tlmgr). After each such installation, each MkIV user must run: context --generate to refresh the ConTeXt disk cache data. The resulting ﬁles are stored under TEXMFCACHE, whose default value in TeX Live is TEXMFSYSVAR;TEXMFVAR. ConTeXt MkIV will read from all paths mentioned in TEXMFCACHE, and write to the ﬁrst path that is writable. While reading, the last found match will take precedence in the case of duplicated cache data. For more information, see https://wiki.contextgarden.net/Running_Mark_IV. ##### 3.4.6 Integrating local and personal macros This is already mentioned implicitly in section 2.3: TEXMFLOCAL (by default, /usr/local/texlive/texmf-local or %SystemDrive%\texlive\texmf-local on Windows) is intended for system-wide local fonts and macros; and TEXMFHOME (by default,$HOME/texmf or %USERPROFILE%\texmf), is for personal fonts and macros. These directories are intended to stick around from release to release, and have their content seen automatically by a new TeX Live release. Therefore, it is best to refrain from changing the deﬁnition of TEXMFLOCAL to be too far away from the main TeX Live directory, or you will need to manually change future releases.

For both trees, ﬁles should be placed in their proper TeX Directory Structure (TDS) subdirectories; see https://tug.org/tds or consult texmf-dist/web2c/texmf.cnf. For instance, a LaTeX class ﬁle or package should be placed in TEXMFLOCAL/tex/latex or TEXMFHOME/tex/latex, or a subdirectory thereof.

TEXMFLOCAL requires an up-to-date ﬁlename database, or ﬁles will not be found. You can update it with the command mktexlsr or use the ‘Update ﬁlename database’ button on the ‘Actions’ tab of the TeX Live Manager GUI.

By default, each of these variables is deﬁned to be a single directory, as shown. This is not a hard-and-fast requirement. If you need to easily switch back and forth between diﬀerent versions of large packages, for example, you can maintain multiple trees for your own purposes. This is done by setting TEXMFHOME to the list of directories, within braces, separated by commas:

     TEXMFHOME = {/my/dir1,/mydir2,/a/third/dir}


Section 7.1.5 describes brace expansion further.

##### 3.4.7 Integrating third-party fonts

This is unfortunately a messy topic for TeX and pdfTeX. Forget about it unless you want to delve into many details of the TeX installation. Many fonts are included in TeX Live already, so take a look if you like; the web pages under https://tug.org/FontCatalogue display nearly all of the text fonts included in the main TeX distributions, categorized in various ways.

If you do want to install your own fonts, see https://tug.org/fonts/fontinstall.html for our best eﬀort at describing the procedure.

Also consider using XeTeX or LuaTeX (see section 2.4), which let you use operating system fonts without any installation in TeX. (But beware that using system fonts usually makes your document sources unusable by anyone in a diﬀerent environment.)

#### 3.5 Testing the installation

After installing TeX Live, you naturally want to test it out, so you can start creating beautiful documents and/ or fonts.

One thing you may immediately be looking for is a front-end with which to edit ﬁles. TeX Live installs TeXworks ( https://tug.org/texworks) on Windows (only), and MacTeX installs TeXShop ( https://pages.uoregon.edu/koch/texshop). On other Unix systems, it’s left up to you to choose an editor. There are many choices available, some of which are listed in the next section; see also https://tug.org/interest.html#editors. Any plain text editor will work; something TeX-speciﬁc is not required.

The rest of this section gives some basic procedures for testing that the new system is functional. We give Unix commands here; under Mac OS X and Windows, you’re more likely to run the tests through a graphical interface, but the principles are the same.

1. Make sure that you can run the tex program in the ﬁrst place:

> tex --version
TeX 3.14159265 (TeX Live ...)
...
If this comes back with ‘command not found’ instead of version and copyright information, or with an older version, most likely you don’t have the correct bin subdirectory in your PATH. See the environment-setting information on p. 41.
2. Process a basic LaTeX ﬁle, generating PDF:

> pdflatex sample2e.tex
This is pdfTeX 3.14...
...
Output written on sample2e.pdf (3 pages, 142120 bytes).
Transcript written on sample2e.log.
If this fails to ﬁnd sample2e.tex or other ﬁles, you may have interference from old environment variables or conﬁguration ﬁles; we recommend unsetting all TeX-related environment variables for a start. (For a deep analysis, you can ask TeX to report on exactly what it is searching for, and ﬁnding; see “Debugging actions” on page 72.)
3. Preview the PDF ﬁle, for example:

> xpdf sample2e.pdf
You should see a new window with a nice document explaining some of the basics of LaTeX. (It’s well worth reading, by the way, if you’re new to TeX.)

Of course there are many other PDF viewers; on Unix systems, evince and okular are commonly used. For Windows, we recommend trying Sumatra PDF ( https://www.sumatrapdfreader.org/free-pdf-reader.html). No PDF viewers are included in TeX Live, so you must install whatever you want to use separately.

4. Of course you can still generate TeX’s original DVI format:

> latex sample2e.tex
5. And preview the DVI online:

> xdvi sample2e.dvi    # Unix
> dviout sample2e.dvi  # Windows
You do have to be running under X for xdvi to work; if you’re not, or your DISPLAY environment variable is set incorrectly, you’ll get an error ‘Can’t open display’.
6. To create a PostScript ﬁle from the DVI:

> dvips sample2e.dvi -o sample2e.ps
7. Or to create PDF from the DVI, an alternate path to using pdfTeX (or XeTeX or LuaTeX) which can be useful sometimes:

> dvipdfmx sample2e.dvi -o sample2e.pdf
8. Other standard test ﬁles you may ﬁnd useful in addition to sample2e.tex:

small2e.tex

A simpler document than sample2e, to reduce the input size if you’re having troubles.

testpage.tex

Test if your printer introduces any oﬀsets.

nfssfont.tex

For printing font tables and tests.

testfont.tex

Also for font tables, but using plain TeX.

story.tex

The most canonical (plain) TeX test ﬁle of all. You must type ‘\bye’ to the * prompt after ‘tex story.tex’.

9. If you have installed the xetex package, you can test its access to system fonts as follows:

> xetex opentype-info.tex
This is XeTeX, Version 3.14
...
Output written on opentype-info.pdf (1 page).
Transcript written on opentype-info.log.

If you get an error message saying “Invalid fontname ‘Latin Modern Roman/ICU’…”, then you need to conﬁgure your system so that the fonts shipped with TeX Live can be found. See section 3.4.4.

#### 3.6 Uninstalling TeX Live

To uninstall TeX Live (after a successful installation):

> tlmgr uninstall --all

You will be asked for conﬁrmation, else nothing will be done. (Without --all, the uninstall action is used to remove individual packages.)

TEXMFCONFIG

This is intended for user conﬁguration changes. If you want to preserve them, be sure you know how to recreate them before removing.

TEXMFVAR

This is intended to store automatically-generated runtime data, such as local format ﬁles. Unless you’ve used it for other purposes, it should be safe to remove.

TEXMFHOME

Contains only ﬁles you yourself installed, typically those not available in the distributions. Unless you are completely stopping using TeX, or want to start over from scratch, you probably don’t want to remove this.

You can ﬁnd the directory paths for these variables by running kpsewhich -var-value=var.

This tlmgr uninstallation also does not undo post-install actions, such as PATH changes in your shell initialization ﬁles and system access to the fonts in TeX Live (see section 3.4). You must manually reverse such actions, if desired.

On Windows, uninstallation can be done through the GUI; see section 6.1.

If you are new to TeX, or otherwise need help with actually writing TeX or LaTeX documents, please visit https://tug.org/begin.html for some introductory resources.

Links for some other tools you may consider installing:

Ghostscript

https://ghostscript.com/, a free PostScript and PDF interpreter.

Perl

https://perl.org/ with supplementary packages from CPAN, https://cpan.org/.

ImageMagick

https://imagemagick.org, for graphics processing and conversion.

NetPBM

http://netpbm.sourceforge.net, also for graphics.

TeX-oriented editors

There is a wide choice, and it is a matter of the user’s taste. Here is a selection in alphabetical order (a few here are for Windows only).

For a much longer list of packages and programs, see https://tug.org/interest.html.

### 4 Specialized installations

The previous sections described the basic installation process. Here we turn to some specialized cases.

#### 4.1 Shared-user (or cross-machine) installations

TeX Live has been designed to be shared between diﬀerent systems on a network. With a standard directory layout, no hard paths are conﬁgured: the locations for ﬁles needed by TeX Live programs are found relative to the programs. You can see this in the principal conﬁguration ﬁle $TEXMFDIST/web2c/texmf.cnf, which contains lines such as TEXMFROOT =$SELFAUTOPARENT
...
TEXMFDIST = $TEXMFROOT/texmf-dist ... TEXMFLOCAL =$SELFAUTOGRANDPARENT/texmf-local

This means that adding the directory for TeX Live executables for their platform to their search path is suﬃcient to get a working setup.

By the same token, you can also install TeX Live locally and then move the entire hierarchy afterwards to a network location.

For Windows, TeX Live includes a launcher tlaunch. Its main window contains menu entries and buttons for various TeX-related programs and documentation, customizable via an ini ﬁle. On ﬁrst use, it replicates the usual Windows-speciﬁc post-install, i.e., search path modiﬁcation and ﬁle associations, but only for the current user. Therefore, workstations with access to TeX Live on the local network only need a menu shortcut for the launcher. See the tlaunch manual (texdoc tlaunch, or https://ctan.org/pkg/tlaunch).

#### 4.2 Portable (USB) installations

The -portable installer option (or V command in the text installer or corresponding GUI option) creates a completely self-contained TeX Live installation under a common root and forgoes system integration. You can create such an installation directly on a USB stick, or copy it to a USB stick afterwards.

Technically, the portable installation is made self-contained by setting the default values of TEXMFHOME, TEXMFVAR, and TEXMFCONFIG to be the same as TEXMFLOCAL, TEXMFSYSVAR, and TEXMFSYSCONFIG respectively; thus, per-user conﬁguration and caches will not be created.

To run TeX using this portable installation, you need to add the appropriate binary directory to the search path during your terminal session, as usual.

On Windows, you can double-click tl-tray-menu at the root of the installation and create a temporary ‘tray menu’ oﬀering a choice of a few common tasks, as shown in this screenshot:

The ‘More…’ entry explains how you can customize this menu.

### 5 tlmgr: Managing your installation

TeX Live includes a program named tlmgr for managing TeX Live after the initial installation. Its capabilities include:

• installing, updating, backing up, restoring, and uninstalling individual packages, optionally taking dependencies into account;

• searching for and listing packages and their descriptions;

• listing, adding, and removing platforms;

• changing installation options such as paper size and source location (see section 3.3.1).

tlmgr’s functionality completely subsumes the texconﬁg program. We still distribute and maintain texconﬁg for the sake of anyone used to its interface, but we recommend using tlmgr nowadays.

#### 5.1 GUI interfaces for tlmgr

TeX Live contains several GUI front-ends for tlmgr. Two notable ones: (1) Figure 9 shows tlshell, which is written in Tcl/Tk and runs out of the box under Windows and Mac OS X; (2) Figure 10 shows tlcockpit, which requires Java version 8 or higher and JavaFX. Both are separate packages.

tlmgr also has a native GUI mode (shown in ﬁgure 11), which is started with:

> tlmgr -gui
However, this GUI extension requires Perl/Tk, which module is no longer included in TeX Live’s Perl distribution for Windows.

#### 5.2 Sample tlmgr command-line invocations

> tlmgr update -all
If this makes you nervous, ﬁrst try
> tlmgr update -all -dry-run
or (less verbose):
> tlmgr update -list

This more complex example adds a collection, for the engine XeTeX, from a local directory:

> tlmgr -repository /local/mirror/tlnet install collection-xetex
It generates the following output (abridged):
install: collection-xetex
install: arabxetex
...
install: xetex
install: xetexconfig
install: xetex.i386-linux
running post install action for xetex
install: xetex-def
...
running mktexlsr
mktexlsr: Updating /usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-dist/ls-R...
...
running fmtutil-sys --missing
...
Transcript written on xelatex.log.
fmtutil: /usr/local/texlive/2022/texmf-var/web2c/xetex/xelatex.fmt installed.

As you can see, tlmgr installs dependencies, and takes care of any necessary post-install actions, including updating the ﬁlename database and (re)generating formats. In the above, we generated new formats for XeTeX.

To describe a package (or collection or scheme):

> tlmgr show collection-latexextra
which produces output like this:
package:    collection-latexextra
category:   Collection
shortdesc:  LaTeX supplementary packages
longdesc:   A very large collection of add-on packages for LaTeX.
installed:  Yes
revision:   46963
sizes:      657941k

Last and most important, for full documentation see https://tug.org/texlive/tlmgr.html, or:

> tlmgr -help

### 6 Notes on Windows

#### 6.1 Windows-speciﬁc features

Under Windows, the installer does some extra things:

A new ‘TeX Live’ submenu of the Start menu is installed. This contains entries for some GUI programs, such as tlshell (a GUI for tlmgr) and dviout, and some entries for documentation.

File associations.

If enabled, TeXworks and Dviout become either the default program for their respective ﬁletypes, or get an entry in the ‘Open with’ right-click menus of those ﬁletypes. However, higher-priority ‘User Choice’ ﬁle associations, which can only be speciﬁed interactively, can get in the way.

PostScript support.

For PostScript ﬁles, a PSviewer ﬁletype now converts PostScript to a temporary PDF, which is then displayed by the default PDF viewer. Various bitmapped formats get an entry bitmap2eps in their ‘Open with’ right-click menu for converting to EPS, letting sam2p or bmeps do the real work.

No manual conﬁguration steps are required.

Uninstaller.

The installer creates an entry for TeX Live, either under ‘Add/Remove Programs’ (admin installation) or under the TeX Live menu (single-user installation).

Write-protect.

For an admin installation, the TeX Live directories are write-protected, at least if TeX Live is installed on a normal NTFS-formatted non-removable disk.

Also, have a look at tlaunch, described in section 4.1, for a diﬀerent approach.

#### 6.2 Additional software included on Windows

To be complete, a TeX Live installation needs support programs that are not commonly found on a Windows machine. TeX Live provides the missing pieces. These programs are all installed as part of TeX Live only on Windows.

Perl, Tcl/Tk and Ghostscript.

Because of the importance of Perl and Ghostscript, and because the installer- and tlshell GUIs are written in Tcl/Tk, TeX Live includes ‘hidden’ copies of these programs. TeX Live programs that need them know where to ﬁnd them, but they don’t betray their presence through environment variables or registry settings. They aren’t full-scale installations, and shouldn’t interfere with any system installations of Perl, Tcl/Tk or Ghostscript.

dviout.

Also installed is dviout, a DVI viewer. At ﬁrst, when you preview ﬁles with dviout, it will create fonts, because screen fonts were not installed. After a while, you will have created most of the fonts you use, and you will rarely see the font-creation window. More information can be found in the (highly recommended) on-line help.

TeXworks.

TeXworks is a TeX-oriented editor with an integrated PDF viewer.

Command-line tools.

A number of Windows ports of common Unix command-line programs are installed along with the usual TeX Live binaries. These include gzip, zip, unzip, and the utilities from the poppler suite (pdﬁnfo, pdﬀonts, …).

fc-list, fc-cache,

The tools from the fontconﬁg library allow XeTeX to handle system fonts on Windows. You can use fc-list to determine the font names to pass to XeTeX’s extended \font command. If necessary, run fc-cache ﬁrst to update font information.

#### 6.3 User Proﬁle is Home

The Windows counterpart of a Unix home directory is the %USERPROFILE% directory. Under Windows Vista and later it is C:\Users\<username>. In the texmf.cnf ﬁle, and Kpathsea in general, ~ will expand appropriately on both Windows and Unix.

#### 6.4 The Windows registry

Windows stores nearly all conﬁguration data in its registry. The registry contains a set of hierarchically organized keys, with several root keys. The most important ones for installation programs are HKEY_CURRENT_USER and HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, HKCU and HKLM in short. The HKCU part of the registry is in the user’s home directory (see section 6.3). HKLM is normally in a subdirectory of the Windows directory.

In some cases, system information could be obtained from environment variables but for other information, for example the location of shortcuts, it is necessary to consult the registry. Setting environment variables permanently also requires registry access.

#### 6.5 Windows permissions

In later versions of Windows, a distinction is made between regular users and administrators, where only the latter have free access to almost the entire operating system. We have made an eﬀort to make TeX Live installable without administrative privileges.

If the installer is started with administrative permissions, there is an option to install for all users. If this option is chosen, shortcuts are created for all users, and the system search path is modiﬁed. Otherwise, shortcuts and menu entries are created for the current user, and the user search path is modiﬁed.

Regardless of administrator status, the default root of TeX Live proposed by the installer is always under %SystemDrive%. The installer always tests whether the root is writable for the current user.

A problem may arise if the user is not an administrator and TeX already exists in the search path. Since the eﬀective search path consists of the system search path followed by the user search path, the new TeX Live would never get precedence. As a fallback, the installer creates a shortcut to the command-prompt in which the new TeX Live binary directory is prepended to the local search path. The new TeX Live will be always usable from within such a command-prompt. The shortcut for TeXworks, if installed, also prepends TeX Live to the search path, so it should also be immune to this path problem.

You should be aware that even if you are logged in as administrator, you need to explicitly ask for administrator privileges. In fact, there is not much point in logging in as administrator. Instead, right-clicking on the program or shortcut that you want to run usually gives you a choice ‘Run as administrator’.

#### 6.6 Increasing maximum memory on Windows and Cygwin

Windows and Cygwin (see section 3.1.4 for Cygwin installation speciﬁcs) users may ﬁnd that they run out of memory when running some of the programs shipped with TeX Live. For example, asy might run out of memory if you try to allocate an array of 25,000,000 reals, and LuaTeX might run out of memory if you try to process a document with a lot of big fonts.

For Cygwin, you can increase the amount of available memory by following the instructions in the Cygwin User’s Guide ( https://cygwin.com/cygwin-ug-net/setup-maxmem.html).

For Windows, you have to create a ﬁle, say moremem.reg, with these four lines:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Cygwin]
"heap_chunk_in_mb"=dword:ffffff00

and then execute the command regedit /s moremem.reg as administrator. (If you want to change memory only for the current user instead of system-wide, use HKEY_CURRENT_USER.)

### 7 A user’s guide to Web2C

Web2C is an integrated collection of TeX-related programs: TeX itself, Metafont, MetaPost, BibTeX, etc. It is the heart of TeX Live. The home page for Web2C, with the current manual and more, is https://tug.org/web2c.

A bit of history: The original implementation was by Tomas Rokicki who, in 1987, developed a ﬁrst TeX-to-C system based on change ﬁles under Unix, which were primarily the original work of Howard Trickey and Pavel Curtis. Tim Morgan became the maintainer of the system, and during this period the name changed to Web-to-C. In 1990, Karl Berry took over the work, assisted by dozens of additional contributors, and in 1997 he handed the baton to Olaf Weber, who returned it to Karl in 2006.

The Web2C system runs on Unix, 32-bit Windows systems, Mac OS X, and other operating systems. It uses Knuth’s original sources for TeX and other basic programs written in the WEB literate programming system and translates them into C source code. The core TeX programs handled in this way are:

bibtex

Maintaining bibliographies.

dvicopy

Expands virtual font references in DVI ﬁles.

dvitomp

DVI to MPX (MetaPost pictures).

dvitype

gftodvi

Generic font proofsheets.

gftopk

Generic to packed fonts.

gftype

mf

Creating typeface families.

mft

Prettyprinting Metafont source.

mpost

Creating technical diagrams.

patgen

Creating hyphenation patterns.

pktogf

Packed to generic fonts.

pktype

pltotf

Plain text property list to TFM.

pooltype

Display WEB pool ﬁles.

tangle

WEB to Pascal.

tex

Typesetting.

tftopl

TFM to plain text property list.

vftovp

Virtual font to virtual property list.

vptovf

Virtual property list to virtual font.

weave

WEB to TeX.

The precise functions and syntax of these programs are described in the documentation of the individual packages and of Web2C itself. However, knowing a few principles governing the whole family of programs will help you take advantage of your Web2C installation.

All programs honor these standard GNU options:

--help

print basic usage summary.

--version

print version information, then exit.

And most also honor:

--verbose

print detailed progress report.

For locating ﬁles the Web2C programs use the path searching library Kpathsea ( https://tug.org/kpathsea). This library uses a combination of environment variables and conﬁguration ﬁles to optimize searching the (huge) collection of TeX ﬁles. Web2C can look at many directory trees simultaneously, which is useful in maintaining TeX’s standard distribution and local and personal extensions in distinct trees. To speed up ﬁle searches, the root of each tree has a ﬁle ls-R, containing an entry showing the name and relative pathname for all ﬁles under that root.

#### 7.1 Kpathsea path searching

Let us ﬁrst describe the generic path searching mechanism of the Kpathsea library.

We call a search path a colon- or semicolon-separated list of path elements, which are basically directory names. A search path can come from (a combination of) many sources. To look up a ﬁle ‘my-file’ along a path ‘.:/dir’, Kpathsea checks each element of the path in turn: ﬁrst ./my-file, then /dir/my-file, returning the ﬁrst match (or possibly all matches).

In order to adapt optimally to all operating systems’ conventions, on non-Unix systems Kpathsea can use ﬁlename separators diﬀerent from colon (‘:’) and slash (‘/’).

To check a particular path element p, Kpathsea ﬁrst checks if a prebuilt database (see “Filename database” on page 69) applies to p, i.e., if the database is in a directory that is a preﬁx of p. If so, the path speciﬁcation is matched against the contents of the database.

Although the simplest and most common path element is a directory name, Kpathsea supports additional features in search paths: layered default values, environment variable names, conﬁg ﬁle values, users’ home directories, and recursive subdirectory searching. Thus, we say that Kpathsea expands a path element, meaning it transforms all the speciﬁcations into basic directory name or names. This is described in the following sections in the same order as it takes place.

Note that if the ﬁlename being searched for is absolute or explicitly relative, i.e., starts with ‘/’ or ‘./’ or ‘../’, Kpathsea simply checks if that ﬁle exists.

##### 7.1.1 Path sources

A search path can come from many sources. In the order in which Kpathsea uses them:

1. A user-set environment variable, for instance, TEXINPUTS. Environment variables with a period and a program name appended override; e.g., if ‘latex’ is the name of the program being run, then TEXINPUTS.latex will override TEXINPUTS.

2. A program-speciﬁc conﬁguration ﬁle, for example, a line ‘S /a:/b’ in dvips’s config.ps.

3. A Kpathsea conﬁguration ﬁle texmf.cnf, containing a line like ‘TEXINPUTS=/c:/d’ (see below).

4. The compile-time default.

You can see each of these values for a given search path by using the debugging options (see “Debugging actions” on page 72).

##### 7.1.2 Conﬁg ﬁles

Kpathsea reads runtime conﬁguration ﬁles named texmf.cnf for search path and other deﬁnitions. The search path TEXMFCNF is used to look for these ﬁles, but we do not recommend setting this (or any) environment variable to override the system directories.

Instead, normal installation results in a ﬁle .../2022/texmf.cnf. If you must make changes to the defaults (not normally necessary), this is the place to put them. The main conﬁguration ﬁle is in .../2022/texmf-dist/web2c/texmf.cnf. You should not edit this latter ﬁle, as your changes will be lost when the distributed version is updated.

As an aside, if you merely wish to add a personal directory to a particular search path, setting an environment variable is a reasonable method:

     TEXINPUTS=.:/my/macro/dir:


To keep the setting maintainable and portable over the years, use a trailing ‘:’ (‘;’ on Windows) to insert the system paths, instead of trying to write them all out explicitly (see section 7.1.4). Another option is to use the TEXMFHOME tree (see section 3.2.3).

All texmf.cnf ﬁles in the search path will be read and deﬁnitions in earlier ﬁles override those in later ﬁles. For example, with a search path of .:$TEXMF, values from ./texmf.cnf override those from$TEXMF/texmf.cnf.

• Comments start with %, either at the beginning of a line or preceded by whitespace, and continue to the end of the line.

• Blank lines are ignored.

• A \ at the end of a line acts as a continuation character, i.e., the next line is appended. Whitespace at the beginning of continuation lines is not ignored.

• Each remaining line has the form:
variable [.progname] [=] value
where the ‘=’ and surrounding whitespace are optional. (But if value begins with ‘.’, it is simplest to use the ‘=’ to avoid the period being interpreted as the program name qualiﬁer.)

• The variable name may contain any character other than whitespace, ‘=’, or ‘.’, but sticking to ‘A-Za-z_’ is safest.

• If ‘.progname’ is present, the deﬁnition only applies if the program that is running is named progname or progname.exe. This allows diﬀerent ﬂavors of TeX to have diﬀerent search paths, for example.

• Considered as strings, value may contain any character. However, in practice most texmf.cnf values are related to path expansion, and since various special characters are used in expansion (see section 7.1.7), such as braces and commas, they cannot be used in directory names.

A ‘;’ in value is translated to ‘:’ if running under Unix, in order to have a single texmf.cnf that can support both Unix and Windows systems. This translation happens with any value, not just search paths, but fortunately in practice ‘;’ is not needed in other values.

The $var.prog feature is not available on the right-hand side; instead, you must use an additional variable. • All deﬁnitions are read before anything is expanded, so variables can be referenced before they are deﬁned. A conﬁguration ﬁle fragment illustrating most of these points is shown below: TEXMF = {$TEXMFLOCAL,!!$TEXMFMAIN} TEXINPUTS.latex = .;$TEXMF/tex/{latex,generic;}//

TEXINPUTS.fontinst = .;$TEXMF/tex//;$TEXMF/fonts/afm//

% e-TeX related files

TEXINPUTS.elatex   = .;$TEXMF/{etex,tex}/{latex,generic;}// TEXINPUTS.etex = .;$TEXMF/{etex,tex}/{eplain,plain,generic;}//


##### 7.1.3 Path expansion

Kpathsea recognizes certain special characters and constructions in search paths, similar to those available in Unix shells. As a general example, the path ~$USER/{foo,bar}//baz, expands to all subdirectories under directories foo and bar in$USER’s home directory that contain a directory or ﬁle baz. These expansions are explained in the sections below.

##### 7.1.4 Default expansion

If the highest-priority search path (see “Path sources” on page 64) contains an extra colon (i.e., leading, trailing, or doubled), Kpathsea inserts at that point the next-highest-priority search path that is deﬁned. If that inserted path has an extra colon, the same happens with the next highest. For example, given an environment variable setting

> setenv TEXINPUTS /home/karl:
and a TEXINPUTS value from texmf.cnf of
.:$TEXMF//tex then the ﬁnal value used for searching will be: /home/karl:.:$TEXMF//tex

Since it would be useless to insert the default value in more than one place, Kpathsea changes only one extra ‘:’ and leaves any others in place. It checks ﬁrst for a leading ‘:’, then a trailing ‘:’, then a doubled ‘:’.

##### 7.1.5 Brace expansion

A useful feature is brace expansion, which means that, for instance, v{a,b}w expands to vaw:vbw. Nesting is allowed. This is used to implement multiple TeX hierarchies, by assigning a brace list to $TEXMF. In the distributed texmf.cnf, a deﬁnition like this (simpliﬁed for this example) is made:  TEXMF = {$TEXMFVAR,$TEXMFHOME,!!$TEXMFLOCAL,!!$TEXMFDIST}  We then use this to deﬁne, for example, the TeX input path:  TEXINPUTS = .;$TEXMF/tex//


which means that, after looking in the current directory, the $TEXMFVAR/tex,$TEXMFHOME/tex, $TEXMFLOCAL/tex and$TEXMFDIST/tex trees will be searched (the last two using ls-R data base ﬁles).

##### 7.1.6 Subdirectory expansion

Two or more consecutive slashes in a path element following a directory d is replaced by all subdirectories of d: ﬁrst those subdirectories directly under d, then the subsubdirectories under those, and so on. At each level, the order in which the directories are searched is unspeciﬁed.

If you specify any ﬁlename components after the ‘//’, only subdirectories with matching components are included. For example, ‘/a//b’ expands into directories /a/1/b, /a/2/b, /a/1/1/b, and so on, but not /a/b/c or /a/1.

Multiple ‘//’ constructs in a path are possible, but ‘//’ at the beginning of a path is ignored.

##### 7.1.7 Summary of special characters in texmf.cnf ﬁles

The following list summarizes the special characters and constructs in Kpathsea conﬁguration ﬁles.

:

Separator in path speciﬁcation; at the beginning or the end of a path, or doubled in the middle, it substitutes the default path expansion.

;

Separator on non-Unix systems (acts like :).

$Variable expansion. ~ Represents the user’s home directory. {...} Brace expansion. , Separates items in brace expansion. // Subdirectory expansion (can occur anywhere in a path, except at its beginning). % and # Start of comment. \ At the end of a line, continuation character to allow multi-line entries. !! Search only database to locate ﬁle, do not search the disk. Exactly when a character will be considered special or act as itself depends on the context in which it is used. The rules are inherent in the multiple levels of interpretation of the conﬁguration (parsing, expansion, search, …) and so cannot be concisely stated, unfortunately. There is no general escape mechanism; in particular, ‘\’ is not an “escape character” in texmf.cnf ﬁles. When it comes choosing directory names for installation, it is safest to avoid them all. #### 7.2 Filename databases Kpathsea goes to some lengths to minimize disk accesses for searches. Nevertheless, in the standard TeX Live, or at any installation with enough directories, searching every possible directory for a given ﬁle will take an excessively long time. Therefore, Kpathsea can use an externally-built plain text “database” ﬁle named ls-R that maps ﬁles to directories, thus avoiding the need to exhaustively search the disk. A second database ﬁle aliases allows you to give additional names to the ﬁles listed in ls-R. ##### 7.2.1 The ﬁlename database As explained above, the name of the main ﬁlename database must be ls-R. You can put one at the root of each TeX hierarchy in your installation that you wish to be searched ($TEXMF by default). Kpathsea looks for ls-R ﬁles along the TEXMFDBS path.

The recommended way to create and maintain ‘ls-R’ is to run the mktexlsr script included with the distribution. It is invoked by the various ‘mktex’… scripts. In principle, this script just runs the command

cd /your/texmf/root && \ls -1LAR ./ >ls-R
presuming your system’s ls produces the right output format (GNU ls is all right). To ensure that the database is always up-to-date, it is easiest to rebuild it regularly via cron, so that it is automatically updated when the installed ﬁles change, such as after installing or updating a LaTeX package.

If a ﬁle is not found in the database, by default Kpathsea goes ahead and searches the disk. If a particular path element begins with ‘!!’, however, only the database will be searched for that element, never the disk.

##### 7.2.2 kpsewhich: Standalone path searching

The kpsewhich program exercises path searching independent of any particular application. This can be useful as a sort of find program to locate ﬁles in TeX hierarchies (this is used heavily in the distributed ‘mktex’… scripts).

> kpsewhich option ﬁlename
The options speciﬁed in option start with either ‘-’ or ‘--’, and any unambiguous abbreviation is accepted.

Kpathsea looks up each non-option argument on the command line as a ﬁlename, and returns the ﬁrst ﬁle found. There is no option to return all the ﬁles with a particular name (you can run the Unix ‘find’ utility for that).

The most common options are described next.

--dpi=num

Set the resolution to num; this only aﬀects ‘gf’ and ‘pk’ lookups. ‘-D’ is a synonym, for compatibility with dvips. Default is 600.

--format=name

Set the format for lookup to name. By default, the format is guessed from the ﬁlename. For formats which do not have an associated unambiguous suﬃx, such as MetaPost support ﬁles and dvips conﬁguration ﬁles, you have to specify the name as known to Kpathsea, such as tex or enc files. Run kpsewhich --help-formats for a list.

--mode=string

Set the mode name to string; this only aﬀects ‘gf’ and ‘pk’ lookups. No default: any mode will be found.

--must-exist

Do everything possible to ﬁnd the ﬁles, notably including searching the disk. By default, only the ls-R database is checked, in the interest of eﬃciency.

--path=string

Search along the path string (colon-separated as usual), instead of guessing the search path from the ﬁlename. ‘//’ and all the usual expansions are supported. The options ‘--path’ and ‘--format’ are mutually exclusive.

--progname=name

Set the program name to name. This can aﬀect the search paths via the .progname feature. The default is kpsewhich.

--show-path=name

shows the path used for ﬁle lookups of ﬁle type name. Either a ﬁlename extension (.pk, .vf, etc.) or a name can be used, just as with ‘--format’ option.

--debug=num

sets the debugging options to num.

##### 7.2.3 Examples of use

Let us now have a look at Kpathsea in action. Here’s a straightforward search:

> kpsewhich article.cls
/usr/local/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/article.cls
We are looking for the ﬁle article.cls. Since the ‘.cls’ suﬃx is unambiguous we do not need to specify that we want to look for a ﬁle of type tex (TeX source ﬁle directories). We ﬁnd it in the subdirectory tex/latex/base below the ‘texmf-dist’ TeX Live directory. Similarly, all of the following are found without problems thanks to their unambiguous suﬃx.
> kpsewhich array.sty
/usr/local/texmf-dist/tex/latex/tools/array.sty
> kpsewhich latin1.def
/usr/local/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/latin1.def
> kpsewhich size10.clo
/usr/local/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/size10.clo
> kpsewhich small2e.tex
/usr/local/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/small2e.tex
> kpsewhich tugboat.bib
/usr/local/texmf-dist/bibtex/bib/beebe/tugboat.bib

By the way, that last is a BibTeX bibliography database for TUGboat articles.

> kpsewhich cmr10.pk
Font bitmap glyph ﬁles of type .pk are used by display programs like dvips and xdvi. Nothing is returned in this case since there are no pre-generated Computer Modern ‘.pk’ ﬁles in TeX Live — the Type 1 variants are used by default.
> kpsewhich wsuipa10.pk
/usr/local/texmf-var/fonts/pk/ljfour/public/wsuipa/wsuipa10.600pk
For these fonts (a phonetic alphabet from the University of Washington) we had to generate ‘.pk’ ﬁles, and since the default Metafont mode on our installation is ljfour with a base resolution of 600dpi (dots per inch), this instantiation is returned.
> kpsewhich -dpi=300 wsuipa10.pk
In this case, when specifying that we are interested in a resolution of 300dpi (-dpi=300) we see that no such font is available on the system. A program like dvips or xdvi would go oﬀ and actually build the required .pk ﬁles using the script mktexpk.

Next we turn our attention to dvips’s header and conﬁguration ﬁles. We ﬁrst look at one of the commonly used ﬁles, the general prologue tex.pro for TeX support, before turning our attention to the generic conﬁguration ﬁle (config.ps) and the PostScript font map psfonts.map — as of 2004, map and encoding ﬁles have their own search paths and new location in texmf trees. As the ‘.ps’ suﬃx is ambiguous we have to specify explicitly which type we are considering (dvips config) for the ﬁle config.ps.

> kpsewhich tex.pro
/usr/local/texmf/dvips/base/tex.pro
> kpsewhich --format="dvips config" config.ps
/usr/local/texmf/dvips/config/config.ps
> kpsewhich psfonts.map
/usr/local/texmf/fonts/map/dvips/updmap/psfonts.map

We now take a closer look at the URW Times PostScript support ﬁles. The preﬁx for these in the standard font naming scheme is ‘utm’. The ﬁrst ﬁle we look at is the conﬁguration ﬁle, which contains the name of the map ﬁle:

> kpsewhich --format="dvips config" config.utm
/usr/local/texmf-dist/dvips/psnfss/config.utm
The contents of that ﬁle is
p +utm.map
which points to the ﬁle utm.map, which we want to locate next.
> kpsewhich utm.map
/usr/local/texmf-dist/fonts/map/dvips/times/utm.map
This map ﬁle deﬁnes the ﬁle names of the Type 1 PostScript fonts in the URW collection. Its contents look like (we only show part of the lines):
utmb8r  NimbusRomNo9L-Medi    ... <utmb8a.pfb
utmbi8r NimbusRomNo9L-MediItal... <utmbi8a.pfb
utmr8r  NimbusRomNo9L-Regu    ... <utmr8a.pfb
utmri8r NimbusRomNo9L-ReguItal... <utmri8a.pfb
utmbo8r NimbusRomNo9L-Medi    ... <utmb8a.pfb
utmro8r NimbusRomNo9L-Regu    ... <utmr8a.pfb
Let us, for instance, take the Times Roman instance utmr8a.pfb and ﬁnd its position in the texmf directory tree with a search for Type 1 font ﬁles:
> kpsewhich utmr8a.pfb
/usr/local/texmf-dist/fonts/type1/urw/times/utmr8a.pfb

It should be evident from these examples how you can easily locate the whereabouts of a given ﬁle. This is especially important if you suspect that the wrong version of a ﬁle is picked up somehow, since kpsewhich will show you the ﬁrst ﬁle encountered.

##### 7.2.4 Debugging actions

Sometimes it is necessary to investigate how a program resolves ﬁle references. To make this practical, Kpathsea oﬀers various levels of debugging output:

1

stat calls (disk lookups). When running with an up-to-date ls-R database this should almost give no output.

2

References to hash tables (such as ls-R databases, map ﬁles, conﬁguration ﬁles).

4

File open and close operations.

8

General path information for ﬁle types searched by Kpathsea. This is useful to ﬁnd out where a particular path for the ﬁle was deﬁned.

16

Directory list for each path element (only relevant for searches on disk).

32

File searches.

64

Variable values.

A value of -1 will set all the above options; in practice, this is usually the most convenient.

Similarly, with the dvips program, by setting a combination of debug switches, one can follow in detail where ﬁles are being picked up from. Alternatively, when a ﬁle is not found, the debug trace shows in which directories the program looks for the given ﬁle, so that one can get an indication what the problem is.

Generally speaking, as most programs call the Kpathsea library internally, one can select a debug option by using the KPATHSEA_DEBUG environment variable, and setting it to (a combination of) values as described in the above list.

(Note for Windows users: it is not easy to redirect all messages to a ﬁle in this system. For diagnostic purposes you can temporarily SET KPATHSEA_DEBUG_OUTPUT=err.log).

Let us consider, as an example, a small LaTeX source ﬁle, hello-world.tex, which contains the following input.

     \documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
Hello World!
\end{document}


This little ﬁle only uses the font cmr10, so let us look at how dvips prepares the PostScript ﬁle (we want to use the Type 1 version of the Computer Modern fonts, hence the option -Pcms).

> dvips -d4100 hello-world -Pcms -o
In this case we have combined dvips’s debug class 4 (font paths) with Kpathsea’s path element expansion (see the dvips reference manual). The output (slightly rearranged) appears in Figure 12.

dvips starts by locating its working ﬁles. First, texmf.cnf is found, which gives the deﬁnitions of the search paths for the other ﬁles, then the ﬁle database ls-R (to optimize ﬁle searching) and the ﬁle aliases, which makes it possible to declare several names (e.g., a short DOS-like 8.3 and a more natural longer version) for the same ﬁle. Then dvips goes on to ﬁnd the generic conﬁguration ﬁle config.ps before looking for the customization ﬁle .dvipsrc (which, in this case is not found). Finally, dvips locates the conﬁg ﬁle for the Computer Modern PostScript fonts config.cms (this was initiated with the -Pcms option on the dvips command). This ﬁle contains the list of the map ﬁles which deﬁne the relation between the TeX, PostScript and ﬁle system names of the fonts.

> more /usr/local/texmf/dvips/cms/config.cms
p +ams.map
p +cms.map
p +cmbkm.map
p +amsbkm.map
dvips thus goes on to ﬁnd all these ﬁles, plus the generic map ﬁle psfonts.map, which is always loaded (it contains declarations for commonly used PostScript fonts; see the last part of section 7.2.3 for more details about PostScript map ﬁle handling).

At this point dvips identiﬁes itself to the user:

Then it goes on to look for the prolog ﬁle texc.pro:

kdebug:start search(file=texc.pro, must_exist=0, find_all=0,
path=.:~/tex/dvips//:!!/usr/local/texmf/dvips//:
~/tex/fonts/type1//:!!/usr/local/texmf/fonts/type1//).
kdebug:search(texc.pro) => /usr/local/texmf/dvips/base/texc.pro

After having found the ﬁle in question, dvips outputs the date and time, and informs us that it will generate the ﬁle hello-world.ps, then that it needs the font ﬁle cmr10, and that the latter is declared as “resident” (no bitmaps needed):

TeX output 1998.02.26:1204’ -> hello-world.ps
Defining font () cmr10 at 10.0pt
Font cmr10 <CMR10> is resident.
Now the search is on for the ﬁle cmr10.tfm, which is found, then a few more prolog ﬁles (not shown) are referenced, and ﬁnally the Type 1 instance cmr10.pfb of the font is located and included in the output ﬁle (see last line).

kdebug:start search(file=cmr10.tfm, must_exist=1, find_all=0,
path=.:~/tex/fonts/tfm//:!!/usr/local/texmf/fonts/tfm//:
/var/tex/fonts/tfm//).
kdebug:search(cmr10.tfm) => /usr/local/texmf/fonts/tfm/public/cm/cmr10.tfm
kdebug:start search(file=texps.pro, must_exist=0, find_all=0,
...
<texps.pro>
kdebug:start search(file=cmr10.pfb, must_exist=0, find_all=0,
path=.:~/tex/dvips//:!!/usr/local/texmf/dvips//:
~/tex/fonts/type1//:!!/usr/local/texmf/fonts/type1//).
kdebug:search(cmr10.pfb) => /usr/local/texmf/fonts/type1/public/cm/cmr10.pfb
<cmr10.pfb>[1]

#### 7.3 Runtime options

Another useful feature of Web2C is its possibility to control a number of memory parameters (in particular, array sizes) via the runtime ﬁle texmf.cnf read by Kpathsea. The memory settings can be found in Part 3 of that ﬁle in the TeX Live distribution. The more important are:

main_memory

Total words of memory available, for TeX, Metafont and MetaPost. You must make a new format ﬁle for each diﬀerent setting. For instance, you could generate a “huge” version of TeX, and call the format ﬁle hugetex.fmt. Using the standard way of specifying the program name used by Kpathsea, the particular value of the main_memory variable will then be read from texmf.cnf.

extra_mem_bot

Extra space for “large” TeX data structures: boxes, glue, breakpoints, etc. Especially useful if you use PI CTeX.

font_mem_size

Number of words for font information available for TeX. This is more or less the total size of all TFM ﬁles read.

hash_extra

Additional space for the hash table of control sequence names; its default value is 600000.

This facility is no substitute for truly dynamic arrays and memory allocation, but since these are extremely diﬃcult to implement in the present TeX source, these runtime parameters provide a practical compromise allowing some ﬂexibility.

#### 7.4 $TEXMFDOTDIR In various places above, we gave various search paths starting with . (to search the current directory ﬁrst), as in TEXINPUTS=.;$TEXMF/tex//

This is a simpliﬁcation. The texmf.cnf ﬁle we distribute in TeX Live uses $TEXMFDOTDIR instead of just ‘.’, as in: TEXINPUTS=$TEXMFDOTDIR;$TEXMF/tex// (In the distributed ﬁle, the second path element is also slightly more complicated than$TEXMF/tex//. But that’s minor; here we want to discuss the $TEXMFDOTDIR feature.) The reason to use the variable$TEXMFDOTDIR in the path deﬁnitions instead of simply ‘.’ is purely so that it can be overridden. For example, a complex document may have many source ﬁles arranged in many subdirectories. To handle that, you can set TEXMFDOTDIR to .// (for example, in the environment when you build the document) and they will all get searched. (Warning: don’t use .// by default; it’s usually highly undesirable, and potentially insecure, to search through all subdirectories for an arbitrary document.)

As another example, you may wish not to search the current directory at all, e.g., if you have arranged for all the ﬁles to be found via explicit paths. You can set $TEXMFDOTDIR to, say, /nonesuch or any nonexistent directory for this. The default value of$TEXMFDOTDIR is just ‘.’, as set in our texmf.cnf.

### 8 Acknowledgements

TeX Live is a joint eﬀort by virtually all of the TeX user groups. This edition of TeX Live was overseen by Karl Berry. The other principal contributors, past and present, are listed below.

• The English, German, Dutch, and Polish TeX user groups (TUG, DANTE e.V., NTG, and GUST, respectively), which provide the necessary technical and administrative infrastructure. Please join the TeX user group near you! (See https://tug.org/usergroups.html.)

• The CTAN team ( https://ctan.org), which distributes the TeX Live images and provides the common infrastructure for package updates, upon which TeX Live depends.

• Nelson Beebe, for making many platforms available to TeX Live developers, and his own comprehensive testing and unparalleled bibliographic eﬀorts.

• John Bowman, for making many changes to his advanced graphics program Asymptote to make it work in TeX Live.

• Peter Breitenlohner and the e-TeX team for the stable foundation of future TeX’s, and Peter speciﬁcally for years of stellar help with GNU autotools and keeping sources up to date. Peter passed away in October 2015, and we dedicate the continuing work to his memory.

• Jin-Hwan Cho and all of the DVIPDFMx team, for their excellent driver and responsiveness to conﬁguration issues.

• Thomas Esser, without whose marvelous teTeX package TeX Live would have never existed.

• Michel Goossens, who co-authored the original documentation.

• Eitan Gurari, whose TeX4ht is used to create the HTML version of this documentation, and who worked tirelessly to improve it at short notice, every year. Eitan prematurely passed away in June 2009, and we dedicate this documentation to his memory.

• Hans Hagen, for much testing and making his ConTeXt package ( https://pragma-ade.com) work within TeX Live’s framework, and continually driving TeX development.

• Hàn Thế Thành, Martin Schröder, and the pdfTeX team ( http://pdftex.org), for continuing enhancements of TeX’s abilities.

• Hartmut Henkel, for signiﬁcant development contributions to pdfTeX LuaTeX, and more.

• Shunshaku Hirata, for much original and continuing work on DVIPDFMx.

• Taco Hoekwater, for major renewed development eﬀorts on MetaPost and (Lua)TeX ( http://luatex.org) itself, incorporating ConTeXt into TeX Live, giving Kpathsea multi-threaded functionality, and much more.

• Khaled Hosny, for substantial work on XeTeX, DVIPDFMx, and eﬀorts with Arabic and other fonts.

• Paweł Jackowski, for the Windows installer tlpm, and Tomasz Łuczak, for tlpmgui, used in past releases.

• Akira Kakuto, for providing the Windows binaries from his W32TEX and W64TEX distributions for Japanese TeX ( http://w32tex.org), and many other development contributions.

• Jonathan Kew, for developing the remarkable XeTeX engine and taking the time and trouble to integrate it in TeX Live, as well as the initial version of the MacTeX installer, and also for our recommended front-end TeXworks.

• Hironori Kitagawa, for maintenance of (e)pTeX and related support.

• Dick Koch, for maintaining MacTeX ( https://tug.org/mactex) in very close tandem with TeX Live, and for his great good cheer in doing so.

• Reinhard Kotucha, for major contributions to the TeX Live 2008 infrastructure and installer, as well as Windows research eﬀorts, the getnonfreefonts script, and more.

• Siep Kroonenberg, also for major contributions to the TeX Live 2008 infrastructure and installer, especially on Windows, and for the bulk of work updating this manual describing those features.

• Clerk Ma, for engine bug ﬁxes and extensions.

• Mojca Miklavec, for much help with ConTeXt, building many binary sets, and plenty more.

• Heiko Oberdiek, for the epstopdf package and many others, compressing the huge pst-geo data ﬁles so we could include them, and most of all, for his remarkable work on hyperref.

• Phelype Oleinik, for the group-delimited \input across engines in 2020, and more.

• Petr Olšak, who coordinated and checked all the Czech and Slovak material very carefully.

• Toshio Oshima, for his dviout previewer for Windows.

• Manuel Pégourié-Gonnard, for helping with package updates, documentation improvements, and texdoc development.

• Fabrice Popineau, for the original Windows support in TeX Live and work on the French documentation.

• Norbert Preining, the principal architect of the current TeX Live infrastructure and installer, and also for coordinating the Debian version of TeX Live (together with Frank Küster), and doing so much work along the way.

• Sebastian Rahtz, for originally creating TeX Live and maintaining it for many years. Sebastian passed away in March 2016, and we dedicate the continuing work to his memory.

• Luigi Scarso, for continuing development of MetaPost, LuaTeX, and much more.

• Andreas Scherer, for cwebbin, the CWEB implementation used in TeX Live, and continuing maintenance of the original CWEB.

• Takuji Tanaka, for maintenance of (e)(u)pTeX and related support.

• Tomasz Trzeciak, for wide-ranging help with Windows.

• Vladimir Volovich, for substantial help with porting and other maintenance issues, and especially for making it feasible to include xindy.

• Staszek Wawrykiewicz, a principal tester for all of TeX Live, and coordinator of the many major Polish contributions: fonts, Windows installation, and more. Staszek passed away in February 2018, and we dedicate the continuing work to his memory.

• Olaf Weber, for his patient maintenance of Web2C in past years.

• Gerben Wierda, for creating and maintaining the original Mac OS X support.

• Graham Williams, the originator of the TeX Catalogue.

• Joseph Wright, for much work on making the same primitive functionality available across engines.

• Hironobu Yamashita, for much work on pTeX and related support.

Builders of the binaries: Marc Baudoin (amd64-netbsd, i386-netbsd), Ken Brown (i386-cygwin, x86_64-cygwin), Simon Dales (armhf-linux), Johannes Hielscher (aarch64-linux), Akira Kakuto (win32), Dick Koch (universal-darwin), Mojca Miklavec (amd64-freebsd, i386-freebsd, x86_64-darwinlegacy, i386-solaris, x86_64-solaris, sparc-solaris), Norbert Preining (i386-linux, x86_64-linux, x86_64-linuxmusl). For information on the TeX Live build process, see https://tug.org/texlive/build.html.

Translators of this manual: Takuto Asakura (Japanese), Denis Bitouzé & Patrick Bideault (French), Carlos Enriquez Figueras (Spanish), Jjgod Jiang, Jinsong Zhao, Yue Wang, & Helin Gai (Chinese), Nikola Lečić (Serbian), Marco Pallante & Carla Maggi (Italian), Petr Sojka & Jan Busa (Czech/Slovak), Boris Veytsman (Russian), Zoﬁa Walczak (Polish), Uwe Ziegenhagen (German). The TeX Live documentation web page is https://tug.org/texlive/doc.html.

Of course the most important acknowledgement must go to Donald Knuth, ﬁrst for inventing TeX, and then for giving it to the world.

### 9 Release history

#### 9.1 Past

Discussion began in late 1993 when the Dutch TeX Users Group was starting work on its 4AllTeX CD for MS-DOS users, and it was hoped at that time to issue a single, rational, CD for all systems. This was too ambitious a target for the time, but it did spawn not only the very successful 4AllTeX CD, but also the TUG Technical Council working group on a TeX Directory Structure ( https://tug.org/tds), which speciﬁed how to create consistent and manageable collections of TeX support ﬁles. A complete draft of the TDS was published in the December 1995 issue of TUGboat, and it was clear from an early stage that one desirable product would be a model structure on CD. The distribution you now have is a very direct result of the working group’s deliberations. It was also clear that the success of the 4AllTeX CD showed that Unix users would beneﬁt from a similarly easy system, and this is the other main strand of TeX Live.

We ﬁrst undertook to make a new Unix-based TDS CD in the autumn of 1995, and quickly identiﬁed Thomas Esser’s teTeX as the ideal setup, as it already had multi-platform support and was built with portability across ﬁle systems in mind. Thomas agreed to help, and work began seriously at the start of 1996. The ﬁrst edition was released in May 1996. At the start of 1997, Karl Berry completed a major new release of Web2c, which included nearly all the features which Thomas Esser had added in teTeX, and we decided to base the 2nd edition of the CD on the standard Web2C, with the addition of teTeX’s texconfig script. The 3rd edition of the CD was based on a major revision of Web2C, 7.2, by Olaf Weber; at the same time, a new revision of teTeX was being made, and TeX Live included almost all of its features. The 4th edition followed the same pattern, using a new version of teTeX, and a new release of Web2C (7.3). The system now included a complete Windows setup, thanks to Fabrice Popineau.

For the 5th edition (March 2000) many parts of the CD were revised and checked, updating hundreds of packages. Package details were stored in XML ﬁles. But the major change for TeX Live 5 was that all non-free software was removed. Everything in TeX Live is now intended to be compatible with the Debian Free Software Guidelines ( https://debian.org/intro/free); we have done our best to check the license conditions of all packages, but we would very much appreciate hearing of any mistakes.

The 6th edition (July 2001) had much more material updated. The major change was a new install concept: the user could select a more exact set of needed collections. Language-related collections were completely reorganized, so selecting any of them installs not only macros, fonts, etc., but also prepares an appropriate language.dat.

The 7th edition of 2002 had the notable addition of Mac OS X support, and the usual myriad of updates to all sorts of packages and programs. An important goal was integration of the source back with teTeX, to correct the drift apart in versions 5 and 6.

##### 9.1.1 2003

In 2003, with the continuing ﬂood of updates and additions, we found that TeX Live had grown so large it could no longer be contained on a single CD, so we split it into three diﬀerent distributions (see section 2.1, p. 7). In addition:

• At the request of the LaTeX team, we changed the standard latex and pdﬂatex commands to now use e-TeX (see p. 11).

• The new Latin Modern fonts were included (and are recommended).

• Support for Alpha OSF was removed (HPUX support was removed previously), since no one had (or volunteered) hardware available on which to compile new binaries.

• Windows setup was substantially changed; for the ﬁrst time an integrated environment based on XEmacs was introduced.

• Important supplementary programs for Windows (Perl, Ghostscript, ImageMagick, Ispell) are now installed in the TeX Live installation directory.

• Font map ﬁles used by dvips, dvipdfm and pdftex are now generated by the new program updmap and installed into texmf/fonts/map.

• TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost now, by default, output most input characters (32 and above) as themselves in output (e.g., \write) ﬁles, log ﬁles, and the terminal, i.e., not translated using the ^^ notation. In TeX Live 7, this translation was dependent on the system locale settings; now, locale settings do not inﬂuence the TeX programs’ behavior. If for some reason you need the ^^ output, rename the ﬁle texmf/web2c/cp8bit.tcx. (Future releases will have cleaner ways to control this.)

• This documentation was substantially revised.

• Finally, since the edition numbers had grown unwieldy, the version is now simply identiﬁed by the year: TeX Live 2003.

##### 9.1.2 2004

2004 saw many changes:

• If you have locally-installed fonts which use their own .map or (much less likely) .enc support ﬁles, you may need to move those support ﬁles.

.map ﬁles are now searched for in subdirectories of fonts/map only (in each texmf tree), along the TEXFONTMAPS path. Similarly, .enc ﬁles are now searched for in subdirectories of fonts/enc only, along the ENCFONTS path. updmap will attempt to warn about problematic ﬁles.

For methods of handling this and other information, please see https://tug.org/texlive/mapenc.html.

• The TeX Collection has been expanded with the addition of a MiKTeX-based installable CD, for those who prefer that implementation to Web2C. See section 2 (p. 7).

• Within TeX Live, the single large texmf tree of previous releases has been replaced by three: texmf, texmf-dist, and texmf-doc. See section 2.2 (p. 8), and the README ﬁles for each.

• All TeX-related input ﬁles are now collected in the tex subdirectory of texmf* trees, rather than having separate sibling directories tex, etex, pdftex, pdfetex, etc. See texmf-dist/doc/generic/tds/tds.html#Extensions.

• Helper scripts (not meant to be invoked by users) are now located in a new scripts subdirectory of texmf* trees, and can be searched for via kpsewhich -format=texmfscripts. So if you have programs which call such scripts, they’ll need to be adjusted. See texmf-dist/doc/generic/tds/tds.html#Scripts.

• Almost all formats leave most characters printable as themselves via the “translation ﬁle” cp227.tcx, instead of translating them with the ^^ notation. Speciﬁcally, characters at positions 32–256, plus tab, vertical tab, and form feed are considered printable and not translated. The exceptions are plain TeX (only 32–126 printable), ConTeXt (0–255 printable), and the Omega-related formats. This default behavior is almost the same as in TeX Live 2003, but it’s implemented more cleanly, with more possibilities for customization. See texmf-dist/doc/web2c/web2c.html#TCX-files. (By the way, with Unicode input, TeX may output partial character sequences when showing error contexts, since it is byte-oriented.)

• pdfetex is now the default engine for all formats except (plain) tex itself. (Of course it generates DVI when run as latex, etc.) This means, among other things, that the microtypographic features of pdftex are available in LaTeX, ConTeXt, etc., as well as the e-TeX features (texmf-dist/doc/etex/base/).

It also means it’s more important than ever to use the ifpdf package (works with both plain and LaTeX) or equivalent code, because simply testing whether \pdfoutput or some other primitive is deﬁned is not a reliable way to determine if PDF output is being generated. We made this backward compatible as best we could this year, but next year, \pdfoutput may be deﬁned even when DVI is being written.

• pdfTeX ( http://pdftex.org) has many new features:

• \pdfmapfile and \pdfmapline provide font map support from within a document.

• Microtypographic font expansion can be used more easily.
http://www.ntg.nl/pipermail/ntg-pdftex/2004-May/000504.html

• All parameters previously set through the special conﬁguration ﬁle pdftex.cfg must now be set through primitives, typically in pdftexconfig.tex; pdftex.cfg is no longer supported. Any extant .fmt ﬁles must be redumped when pdftexconfig.tex is changed.

• See the pdfTeX manual for more: texmf-dist/doc/pdftex/manual/pdftex-a.pdf.

• The \input primitive in tex (and mf and mpost) now accepts double quotes containing spaces and other special characters. Typical examples:

     \input "filename with spaces"   % plain
\input{"filename with spaces"}  % latex


See the Web2C manual for more: texmf-dist/doc/web2c.

• encTeX support is now included within Web2C and consequently all TeX programs, via the -enc option — only when formats are built. encTeX supports general re-encoding of input and output, enabling full support of Unicode (in UTF-8). See texmf-dist/doc/generic/enctex/ and http://olsak.net/enctex.html.

• Aleph, a new engine combining e-TeX and Omega, is available. A little information is available in texmf-dist/doc/aleph/base and https://texfaq.org/FAQ-enginedev. The LaTeX-based format for Aleph is named lamed.

• The latest LaTeX release has a new version of the LPPL — now oﬃcially a Debian-approved license. Assorted other updates, see the ltnews ﬁles in texmf-dist/doc/latex/base.

• dvipng, a new program for converting DVI to PNG image ﬁles, is included. See https://ctan.org/pkg/dvipng.

• We reduced the cbgreek package to a “medium” sized set of fonts, with the assent and advice of the author (Claudio Beccari). The excised fonts are the invisible, outline, and transparency ones, which are relatively rarely used, and we needed the space. The full set is of course available from CTAN ( https://ctan.org/pkg/cbgreek-complete).

• oxdvi has been removed; just use xdvi.

• The ini and vir commands (links) for tex, mf, and mpost are no longer created, such as initex. The ini functionality has been available through the command-line option -ini for years now.

• i386-openbsd platform support was removed. Since the tetex package in the BSD Ports system is available, and GNU/Linux and FreeBSD binaries were available, it seemed volunteer time could be better spent elsewhere.

• On sparc-solaris (at least), you may have to set the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to run the t1utils programs. This is because they are compiled with C++, and there is no standard location for the runtime libraries. (This is not new in 2004, but wasn’t previously documented.) Similarly, on mips-irix, the MIPSpro 7.4 runtimes are required.

##### 9.1.3 2005

2005 saw the usual huge number of updates to packages and programs. The infrastructure stayed relatively stable from 2004, but inevitably there were some changes there as well:

• New scripts texconﬁg-sys, updmap-sys, and fmtutil-sys were introduced, which modify the conﬁguration in the system trees. The texconﬁg, updmap, and fmtutil scripts now modify user-speciﬁc ﬁles, under $HOME/.texlive2005. • Corresponding new variables TEXMFCONFIG and TEXMFSYSCONFIG to specify the trees where conﬁguration ﬁles (user or system, respectively) are found. Thus, you may need to move personal versions of fmtutil.cnf and updmap.cfg to these places; another option is to redeﬁne TEXMFCONFIG or TEXMFSYSCONFIG in texmf.cnf. In any case the real location of these ﬁles and the values of TEXMFCONFIG and TEXMFSYSCONFIG must agree. See section 2.3, p. 9. • Last year, we kept \pdfoutput and other primitives undeﬁned for DVI output, even though the pdfetex program was being used. This year, as promised, we undid that compatibility measure. So if your document uses \ifx\pdfoutput\undefined to test if PDF is being output, it will need to be changed. You can use the package ifpdf.sty (which works under both plain TeX and LaTeX) to do this, or steal its logic. • Last year, we changed most formats to output (8-bit) characters as themselves (see previous section). The new TCX ﬁle empty.tcx now provides an easier way to get the original ^^ notation if you so desire, as in:  latex --translate-file=empty.tcx yourfile.tex  • The new program dvipdfmx is included for translation of DVI to PDF; this is an actively maintained update of dvipdfm (which is also still available for now, though no longer recommended). • The new programs pdfopen and pdfclose are included to allow reloading of PDF ﬁles in the Adobe Acrobat Reader without restarting the program. (Other PDF readers, notably xpdf, gv, and gsview, have never suﬀered from this problem.) • For consistency, the variables HOMETEXMF and VARTEXMF have been renamed to TEXMFHOME and TEXMFSYSVAR, respectively. There is also TEXMFVAR, which is by default user-speciﬁc. See the ﬁrst point above. ##### 9.1.4 2006–2007 In 2006–2007, the major new addition to TeX Live was the XeTeX program, available as the xetex and xelatex programs; see https://scripts.sil.org/xetex. MetaPost also received a notable update, with more planned for the future ( https://tug.org/metapost/articles), likewise pdfTeX ( https://tug.org/applications/pdftex). The TeX .fmt (high-speed format) and the similar ﬁles for MetaPost and Metafont are now stored in subdirectories of texmf/web2c, instead of in the directory itself (although the directory is still searched, for the sake of existing .fmt’s). The subdirectories are named for the ‘engine’ in use, such as tex or pdftex or xetex. This change should be invisible in normal use. The (plain) tex program no longer reads %& ﬁrst lines to determine what format to run; it is the pure Knuthian TeX. (LaTeX and everything else do still read %& lines). Of course the year also saw (the usual) hundreds of other updates to packages and programs. As usual, please check CTAN ( https://ctan.org) for updates. Internally, the source tree is now stored in Subversion, with a standard web interface for viewing the tree, as linked from our home page. Although not visible in the ﬁnal distribution, we expect this will provide a stable development foundation for future years. Finally, in May 2006 Thomas Esser announced that he would no longer be updating teTeX ( https://tug.org/tetex). As a result, there was a surge of interest in TeX Live, especially among GNU/Linux distributors. (There is a new tetex installation scheme in TeX Live, which provides an approximate equivalent.) We hope this will eventually translate to improvements in the TeX environment for everyone. ##### 9.1.5 2008 In 2008, the entire TeX Live infrastructure was redesigned and reimplemented. Complete information about an installation is now stored in a plain text ﬁle tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb. Among other things, this ﬁnally makes possible upgrading a TeX Live installation over the Internet after the initial installation, a feature MiKTeX has provided for many years. We expect to regularly update new packages as they are released to CTAN. The major new engine LuaTeX ( http://luatex.org) is included; besides a new level of ﬂexibility in typesetting, this provides an excellent scripting language for use both inside and outside of TeX documents. Support among Windows and the Unix-based platforms is now much more uniform. In particular, most Perl and Lua scripts are now available on Windows, using the Perl internally distributed with TeX Live. The new tlmgr script (section 5) is the general interface for managing TeX Live after the initial installation. It handles package updates and consequent regeneration of formats, map ﬁles, and language ﬁles, optionally including local additions. With the advent of tlmgr, the texconﬁg actions to edit the format and hyphenation conﬁguration ﬁles are now disabled. The xindy indexing program ( http://xindy.sourceforge.net/) is now included on most platforms. The kpsewhich tool can now report all matches for a given ﬁle (option --all) and limit matches to a given subdirectory (option --subdir). The dvipdfmx program now includes functionality to extract bounding box information, via the command name extractbb; this was one of the last features provided by dvipdfm not in dvipdfmx. The font aliases Times-Roman, Helvetica, and so on have been removed. Diﬀerent packages expected them to behave diﬀerently (in particular, to have diﬀerent encodings), and there was no good way to resolve this. The platex format has been removed, to resolve a name conﬂict with a completely diﬀerent Japanese platex; the polski package is now the main Polish support. Internally, the WEB string pool ﬁles are now compiled into the binaries, to ease upgrades. Finally, the changes made by Donald Knuth in his ‘TeX tuneup of 2008’ are included in this release. See https://tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb29-2/tb92knut.pdf. ##### 9.1.6 2009 In 2009, the default output format for Lua(LA )TeX is now PDF, to take advantage of LuaTeX’s OpenType support, et al. New executables named dviluatex and dvilualatex run LuaTeX with DVI output. The LuaTeX home page is http://luatex.org. The original Omega engine and Lambda format have been excised, after discussions with the Omega authors. The updated Aleph and Lamed remain, as do the Omega utilities. A new release of the AMS Type 1 fonts is included, including Computer Modern: a few shape changes made over the years by Knuth in the Metafont sources have been integrated, and the hinting has been updated. The Euler fonts have been thoroughly reshaped by Hermann Zapf (see https://tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb29-2/tb92hagen-euler.pdf). In all cases, the metrics remain unchanged. The AMS fonts home page is https://ams.org/tex/amsfonts.html. The new GUI front end TeXworks is included for Windows, and also in MacTeX. For other platforms, and more information, see the TeXworks home page, https://tug.org/texworks. It is a cross-platform front-end inspired by the Mac OS X TeXShop editor, aiming at ease-of-use. The graphics program Asymptote is included for several platforms. This implements a text-based graphics description language vaguely akin to MetaPost, but with advanced 3D support and other features. Its home page is https://asymptote.sourceforge.io. The separate dvipdfm program has been replaced by dvipdfmx, which operates in a special compatibility mode under that name. dvipdfmx includes CJK support and has accumulated many other ﬁxes over the years since the last dvipdfm release. Executables for the cygwin and i386-netbsd platforms are now included, while we were advised that OpenBSD users get TeX through their package systems, plus there were diﬃculties in making binaries that have a chance of working on more than one version. A miscellany of smaller changes: we now use xz compression, the stable replacement for lzma ( https://tukaani.org/xz/); a literal$ is allowed in ﬁlenames when it does not introduce a known variable name; the Kpathsea library is now multi-threaded (made use of in MetaPost); the entire TeX Live build is now based on Automake.

Final note on the past: all releases of TeX Live, along with ancillary material such as CD labels, are available at ftp://tug.org/historic/systems/texlive.

##### 9.1.7 2010

In 2010, the default version for PDF output is now 1.5, enabling more compression. This applies to all the TeX engines when used to produce PDF and to dvipdfmx. Loading the pdf14 LaTeX package changes back to PDF 1.4, or set \pdfminorversion=4.

pdf(LA )TeX now automatically converts a requested Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) ﬁle to PDF, via the epstopdf package, when and if the LaTeX graphics.cfg conﬁguration ﬁle is loaded, and PDF is being output. The default options are intended to eliminate any chance of hand-created PDF ﬁles being overwritten, but you can also prevent epstopdf from being loaded at all by putting \newcommand{\DoNotLoadEpstopdf}{} (or \def...) before the \documentclass declaration. It is also not loaded if the pst-pdf package is used. For more details, see the epstopdf package documentation ( https://ctan.org/pkg/epstopdf-pkg).

A related change is that execution of a very few external commands from TeX, via the \write18 feature, is now enabled by default. These commands are repstopdf, makeindex, kpsewhich, bibtex, and bibtex8; the list is deﬁned in texmf.cnf. Environments which must disallow all such external commands can deselect this option in the installer (see section 3.2.4), or override the value after installation by running tlmgr conf texmf shell_escape 0.

Yet another related change is that BibTeX and Makeindex now refuse to write their output ﬁles to an arbitrary directory (like TeX itself), by default. This is so they can now be enabled for use by the restricted \write18. To change this, the TEXMFOUTPUT environment variable can be set, or the openout_any setting changed.

XeTeX now supports margin kerning along the same lines as pdfTeX. (Font expansion is not presently supported.)

By default, tlmgr now saves one backup of each package updated (tlmgr option autobackup 1), so broken package updates can be easily reverted with tlmgr restore. If you do post-install updates, and don’t have the disk space for the backups, run tlmgr option autobackup 0.

New programs included: the pTeX engine and related utilities for typesetting Japanese; the BibTeXU program for Unicode-enabled BibTeX; the chktex utility (originally from http://baruch.ev-en.org/proj/chktex) for checking (LA )TeX documents; the dvisvgm ( https://dvisvgm.de) DVI-to-SVG translator.

Executables for these new platforms are now included: amd64-freebsd, amd64-kfreebsd, i386-freebsd, i386-kfreebsd, x86_64-darwin, x86_64-solaris.

A change in TeX Live 2009 that we failed to note: numerous TeX4ht-related executables ( https://tug.org/tex4ht) were removed from the binary directories. The generic mk4ht program can be used to run any of the various tex4ht combinations.

Finally, the TeX Live release on the TeX Collection DVD can no longer be run live (oddly enough). A single DVD no longer has enough room. One beneﬁcial side eﬀect is that installation from the physical DVD is much faster.

##### 9.1.8 2011

The Mac OS X binaries (universal-darwin and x86_64-darwin) now work only on Leopard or later; Panther and Tiger are no longer supported.

The biber program for bibliography processing is included on common platforms. Its development is closely coupled with the biblatex package, which completely reimplements the bibliographical facilities provided by LaTeX.

The MetaPost (mpost) program no longer creates or uses .mem ﬁles. The needed ﬁles, such as plain.mp, are simply read on every run. This is related to supporting MetaPost as a library, which is another signiﬁcant though not user-visible change.

The updmap implementation in Perl, previously used only on Windows, has been revamped and is now used on all platforms. There shouldn’t be any user-visible changes as a result, except that it runs much faster.

The initex and inimf programs were restored (but no other ini* variants).

##### 9.1.9 2012

tlmgr supports updates from multiple network repositories. The section on multiple repositories in the tlmgr help output has more.

The parameter \XeTeXdashbreakstate is set to 1 by default, for both xetex and xelatex. This allows line breaks after em-dashes and en-dashes, which has always been the behavior of plain TeX, LaTeX, LuaTeX, etc. Existing XeTeX documents which must retain perfect line-break compatibility will need to set \XeTeXdashbreakstate to 0 explicitly.

The output ﬁles generated by pdftex and dvips, among others, can now exceed 2 gigabytes.

The 35 standard PostScript fonts are included in the output of dvips by default, since so many diﬀerent versions of them are extant.

In the restricted \write18 execution mode, set by default, mpost is now an allowed program.

A texmf.cnf ﬁle is also found in ../texmf-local, e.g., /usr/local/texlive/texmf-local/web2c/texmf.cnf, if it exists.

The updmap script reads a per-tree updmap.cfg instead of one global conﬁg. This change should be invisible, unless you edited your updmap.cfg’s directly. The updmap --help output has more.

Platforms: armel-linux and mipsel-linux added; sparc-linux and i386-netbsd are no longer in the main distribution.

##### 9.1.10 2013

Distribution layout: the top-level texmf/ directory has been merged into texmf-dist/, for simplicity. Both the TEXMFMAIN and TEXMFDIST Kpathsea variables now point to texmf-dist.

Many small language collections have been merged together, to simplify installation.

MetaPost: native support for PNG output and ﬂoating-point (IEEE double) has been added.

LuaTeX: updated to Lua 5.2, and includes a new library (pdfscanner) to process external PDF page content, among much else (see its web pages).

XeTeX (also see its web pages for more):

• The HarfBuzz library is now used for font layout instead of ICU. (ICU is still used to support input encodings, bidirectionality, and the optional Unicode line breaking.)

• Graphite2 and HarfBuzz are used instead of SilGraphite for Graphite layout.

• On Macs, Core Text is used instead of the (deprecated) ATSUI.

• Prefer TrueType/OpenType fonts to Type1 when the names are the same.

• Fix occasional mismatch in font ﬁnding between XeTeX and xdvipdfmx.

• Support OpenType math cut-ins.

xdvi: now uses FreeType instead of t1lib for rendering.

microtype.sty: some support for XeTeX (protrusion) and LuaTeX (protrusion, font expansion, tracking), among other enhancements.

tlmgr: new pinning action to ease conﬁguring multiple repositories; that section in tlmgr --help has more, online at https://tug.org/texlive/doc/tlmgr.html#MULTIPLE-REPOSITORIES.

Platforms: armhf-linux, mips-irix, i386-netbsd, and amd64-netbsd added or revived; powerpc-aix removed.

##### 9.1.11 2014

2014 saw another TeX tune-up from Knuth; this aﬀected all engines, but the only visible change likely is the restoration of the preloaded format string on the banner line. Per Knuth, this now reﬂects the format that would be loaded by default, rather than an undumped format that is actually preloaded in the binary; it may be overridden in various ways.

pdfTeX: new warning-suppression parameter \pdfsuppresswarningpagegroup; new primitives for fake interword spaces to help with PDF text reﬂowing: \pdfinterwordspaceon, \pdfinterwordspaceoff, \pdffakespace.

LuaTeX: Notable changes and ﬁxes were made to font loading and hyphenation. The biggest addition is a new engine variant, luajittex and its siblings texluajit and texluajitc. This uses a just-in-time Lua compiler (detailed TUGboat article at https://tug.org/TUGboat/tb34-1/tb106scarso.pdf). luajittex is still in development, is not available on all platforms, and is considerably less stable than luatex. Neither we nor its developers recommend using it except for the speciﬁc purpose of experimenting with jit on Lua code.

XeTeX: The same image formats are now supported on all platforms (including Mac); avoid Unicode compatibility decomposition fallback (but not other variants); prefer OpenType to Graphite fonts, for compatibility with previous XeTeX versions.

MetaPost: A new numbersystem decimal is supported, along with a companion internal numberprecision; a new deﬁnition of drawdot in plain.mp, per Knuth; bug ﬁxes in SVG and PNG output, among others.

The pstopdf ConTeXt utility will be removed as a standalone command at some point after the release, due to conﬂicts with OS utilities of the same name. It can still (and now) be invoked as mtxrun –script pstopdf.

psutils has been substantially revised by a new maintainer. As a result, several seldom-used utilities (fix*, getafm, psmerge, showchar) are now only in the scripts/ directory rather than being user-level executables (this can be reversed if it turns out to be problematic). A new script, psjoin, has been added.

The MacTeX redistribution of TeX Live (section 3.1.2) no longer includes the optional Mac-only packages for the Latin Modern and TeX Gyre fonts, since it is easy enough for individual users to make them available to the system. The convert program from ImageMagick has also been excised, since TeX4ht (speciﬁcally tex4ht.env) now uses Ghostscript directly.

The langcjk collection for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean support has been split into individual language collections for the sake of more moderate sizes.

Platforms: x86_64-cygwin added, mips-irix removed; Microsoft no longer supports Windows XP, so our programs may start failing there at any time.

##### 9.1.12 2015

LaTeX2e now incorporates, by default, changes previously included only by explicitly loading the ﬁxltx2e package, which is now a no-op. A new latexrelease package and other mechanisms allow for controlling what is done. The included LaTeX News #22 and “LaTeX changes” documents have details. Incidentally, the babel and psnfss packages, while core parts of LaTeX, are maintained separately and are not aﬀected by these changes (and should still work).

Internally, LaTeX2e now includes Unicode-related engine conﬁguration (what characters are letters, naming of primitives, etc.) which was previously part of TeX Live. This change is intended to be invisible to users; a few low-level internal control sequences have been renamed or removed, but the behavior should be just the same.

pdfTeX: Support JPEG Exif as well as JFIF; do not emit a warning if \pdfinclusionerrorlevel is negative; sync with xpdf 3.04.

LuaTeX: New library newtokenlib for scanning tokens; bug ﬁxes in the normal random number generator and other places.

XeTeX: Image handling ﬁxes; xdvipdfmx binary looked for ﬁrst as a sibling to xetex; internal XDV opcodes changed.

MetaPost: New numbersystem binary; new Japanese-enabled upmpost and updvitomp programs, analogous to up*tex.

MacTeX: Updates to the included Ghostscript package for CJK support. The TeX Distribution Preference Pane now works in Yosemite (Mac OS X 10.10). Resource-fork font suitcases (generally without an extension) are no longer supported by XeTeX; data-fork suitcases (.dfont) remain supported.

Infrastructure: The fmtutil script has been reimplemented to read fmtutil.cnf on a per-tree basis, analogous to updmap. Web2C mktex* scripts (including mktexlsr, mktextfm, mktexpk) now prefer programs in their own directory, instead of always using the existing PATH.

Platforms: *-kfreebsd removed, since TeX Live is now easily available through the system platform mechanisms. Support for some additional platforms is available as custom binaries ( https://tug.org/texlive/custom-bin.html). In addition, some platforms are now omitted from the DVD (simply to save space), but can be installed normally over the net.

##### 9.1.13 2016

LuaTeX: Sweeping changes to primitives, both renames and removals, along with some node structure rearrangements. The changes are summarized in an article by Hans Hagen, “LuaTeX 0.90 backend changes for PDF and more” ( https://tug.org/TUGboat/tb37-1/tb115hagen-pdf.pdf); for all the details, see the LuaTeX manual, texmf-dist/doc/luatex/base/luatex.pdf.

Metafont: New highly experimental sibling programs MFlua and MFluajit, integrating Lua with Metafont, for trial testing purposes.

MetaPost: Bug ﬁxes and internal preparations for MetaPost 2.0.

SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH support in all engines except LuaTeX (which will come in the next release) and original tex (intentionally omitted): if the environment variable SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH is set, its value is used for timestamps in the PDF output. If SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH_TEX_PRIMITIVES is also set, the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH value is used to initialize the TeX primitives \year, \month, \day, \time. The pdfTeX manual has examples and details.

pdfTeX: new primitives \pdfinfoomitdate, \pdftrailerid, \pdfsuppressptexinfo, to control values appearing in the output which normally change with each run. These features are for PDF output only, not DVI.

XeTeX: New primitives \XeTeXhyphenatablelength, \XeTeXgenerateactualtext,
\XeTeXinterwordspaceshaping, \mdfivesum; character class limit increased to 4096; DVI id byte incremented.

Other utilities:

• gregorio is a new program, part of the gregoriotex package for typesetting Gregorian chant scores; it is included in shell_escape_commands by default.

• upmendex is an index creation program, mostly compatible with makeindex, with support for Unicode sorting, among other changes.

• afm2tfm now makes only accent-based height adjustments upward; a new option -a omits all adjustments.

• ps2pk can handle extended PK/GF fonts.

MacTeX: The TeX Distribution Preference Pane is gone; its functionality is now in TeX Live Utility; bundled GUI applications upgraded; new script cjk-gs-integrate to be run by users who wish to incorporate various CJK fonts into Ghostscript.

Infrastructure: System-level tlmgr conﬁguration ﬁle supported; verify package checksums; if GPG is available, verify signature of network updates. These checks happen with both the installer and tlmgr. If GPG is not available, updates proceed as usual.

Platforms: alpha-linux and mipsel-linux removed.

##### 9.1.14 2017

pdfTeX: Environment variable SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH_TEX_PRIMITIVES from last year renamed to FORCE_SOURCE_DATE, with no changes in functionality; if the \pdfpageattr token list contains the string /MediaBox, omit output of the default /MediaBox.

XeTeX: Unicode/OpenType math now based on HarfBuzz’s MATH table support; some bug ﬁxes.

Dvips: Make the last papersize special win, for consistency with dvipdfmx and package expectations; the -L0 option (L0 conﬁg setting) restores the previous behavior of the ﬁrst special winning.

epTeX, eupTeX: New primitives \pdfuniformdeviate, \pdfnormaldeviate, \pdfrandomseed, \pdfsetrandomseed, \pdfelapsedtime, \pdfresettimer, from pdfTeX.

MacTeX: As of this year, only Mac OS X releases for which Apple still releases security patches will be supported in MacTeX, under the platform name x86_64-darwin; currently this means Yosemite, El Capitan, and Sierra (10.10 and newer). Binaries for older Mac OS X versions are not included in MacTeX, but are still available in TeX Live (x86_64-darwinlegacy, i386-darwin, powerpc-darwin).

Infrastructure: The TEXMFLOCAL tree is now searched before TEXMFSYSCONFIG and TEXMFSYSVAR (by default); the hope is that this will better match expectations of local ﬁles overriding system ﬁles. Also, tlmgr has a new mode shell for interactive and scripted use, and a new action conf auxtrees to easily add and remove extra trees.

updmap and fmtutil: These scripts now give a warning when invoked without explicitly specifying either so-called system mode (updmap-sys, fmtutil-sys, or option -sys), or user mode (updmap-user, fmtutil-user, or option -user). The hope is that this will reduce the perennial problem of invoking user mode by accident and thus losing future system updates. See https://tug.org/texlive/scripts-sys-user.html for details.

install-tl: Personal paths such as TEXMFHOME are now set to MacTeX values (~/Library/...) by default on Macs. New option -init-from-profile to start an installation with the values from a given proﬁle; new command P to explicitly save a proﬁle; new proﬁle variable names (but previous ones are still accepted).

SyncTeX: the name of the temporary ﬁle now looks like foo.synctex(busy), instead of foo.synctex.gz(busy) (no .gz). Front-ends and build systems that want to remove temp ﬁles may need adjusting.

Other utilities: texosquery-jre8 is a new cross-platform program for retrieving locale and other OS information from a TeX document; it is included in shell_escape_commands by default for restricted shell execution. (Older JRE versions are supported by texosquery, but cannot be enabled in restricted mode, as they are no longer supported by Oracle, even for security issues.)

Platforms: See MacTeX entry above; no other changes.

##### 9.1.15 2018

Kpathsea: Case-insensitive ﬁlename matching now done by default in non-system directories; set texmf.cnf or environment variable texmf_casefold_search to 0 to disable. Full details in the Kpathsea manual ( https://tug.org/kpathsea).

epTeX, eupTeX: New primitive \epTeXversion.

LuaTeX: Preparation for moving to Lua 5.3 in 2019: a binary luatex53 is available on most platforms, but must be renamed to luatex to be eﬀective. Or use the ConTeXt Garden ( https://wiki.contextgarden.net) ﬁles; more information there.

MetaPost: Fixes for wrong path directions, TFM and PNG output.

pdfTeX: Allow encoding vectors for bitmap fonts; current directory not hashed into PDF ID; bug ﬁxes for \pdfprimitive and related.

XeTeX: Support /Rotate in PDF image inclusion; exit nonzero if the output driver fails; various obscure UTF-8 and other primitive ﬁxes.

MacTeX: See version support changes below. In addition, the ﬁles installed in /Applications/TeX/ by MacTeX have been reorganized for greater clarity; now this location contains four GUI programs (BibDesk, LaTeXiT, TeX Live Utility, and TeXShop) at the top level and folders with additional utilities and documentation.

tlmgr: new front-ends tlshell (Tcl/Tk) and tlcockpit (Java); JSON output; uninstall now a synonym for remove; new action/option print-platform-info.

Platforms:

• Removed: armel-linux, powerpc-linux.

• x86_64-darwin supports 10.10–10.13 (Yosemite, El Capitan, Sierra, and High Sierra).

• x86_64-darwinlegacy supports 10.6–10.10 (though x86_64-darwin is preferred for 10.10). All support for 10.5 (Leopard) is gone, that is, both the powerpc-darwin and i386-darwin platforms have been removed.

• Windows: XP is no longer supported.

##### 9.1.16 2019

Kpathsea: More consistent brace expansion and path splitting; new variable TEXMFDOTDIR instead of hard-coded . in paths allows for easily searching additional or sub-directories (see comments in texmf.cnf).

epTeX, eupTeX: New primitives \readpapersizespecial and \expanded.

LuaTeX: Lua 5.3 now used, with concomitant arithmetic and interface changes. The homegrown library pplib is used to read pdf ﬁles, thus eliminating the dependency on poppler (and the need for C++); Lua interface changed accordingly.

MetaPost: r-mpost command name recognized as an alias for invocation with the --restricted option, and added to the list of restricted commands available by default. Minimum precision now 2 for decimal and binary mode. Binary mode no longer available in MPlib but still available in standalone MetaPost.

pdfTeX: New primitive \expanded; if new primitive parameter \pdfomitcharset is set to 1, the /CharSet string omitted from the PDF output, since it cannot feasibly be guaranteed correct, as required by PDF/A-2 and PDF/A-3.

XeTeX: New primitives \expanded, \creationdate, \elapsedtime, \filedump, \filemoddate, \filesize, \resettimer, \normaldeviate, \uniformdeviate, \randomseed; extend \Ucharcat to produce active characters.

tlmgr: Support curl as a download program; use lz4 and gzip before xz for local backups, if available; prefer system-provided binaries over binaries provided with TeX Live for compressor and download programs, unless the environment variable TEXLIVE_PREFER_OWN is set.

install-tl: New option -gui (with no argument) is the default on Windows and Macs, and invokes a new Tcl/TK GUI (see sections 1.3 and 3.1.6).

Utilities:

• cwebbin ( https://ctan.org/pkg/cwebbin) is now the CWEB implementation in TeX Live, with support for more language dialects, and including the ctwill program to make mini-indexes.

• chkdvifont: report font information from DVI ﬁles, also from tfm/ofm, vf, gf, pk.

• dvispc: make a DVI ﬁle page-independent with respect to specials.

MacTeX: x86_64-darwin now supports 10.12 and higher (Sierra, High Sierra, Mojave); x86_64-darwinlegacy still supports 10.6 and newer. The spell checker Excalibur is no longer included, since it requires 32-bit support.

Platforms: removed sparc-solaris.

##### 9.1.17 2020

General:

• The \input primitive in all TeX engines, including tex, now also accepts a group-delimited ﬁlename argument, as a system-dependent extension. The usage with a standard space/token-delimited ﬁlename is completely unchanged. The group-delimited argument was previously implemented in LuaTeX; now it is available in all engines. ASCII double quote characters (") are removed from the ﬁlename, but it is otherwise left unchanged after tokenization. This does not currently aﬀect LaTeX’s \input command, as that is a macro redeﬁnition of the standard \input primitive.

• New option --cnf-line for kpsewhich, tex, mf, and all other engines, to support arbitrary conﬁguration settings on the command line.

• The addition of various primitives to various engines in this and previous years is intended to result in a common set of functionality available across all engines (LaTeX News #31, https://latex-project.org/news).

epTeX, eupTeX: New primitives \Uchar, \Ucharcat, \current(x)spacingmode, \ifincsname; revise \fontchar?? and \iffontchar. For eupTeX only: \currentcjktoken.

LuaTeX: Integration with HarfBuzz library, available as new engines luahbtex (used for lualatex) and luajithbtex. New primitives: \eTeXgluestretchorder, \eTeXglueshrinkorder.

pdfTeX: New primitive \pdfmajorversion; this merely changes the version number in the PDF output; it has no eﬀect on any PDF content. \pdfximage and similar now search for image ﬁles in the same way as \openin.

pTeX: New primitives \ifjfont, \iftfont. Also in epTeX, upTeX, eupTeX.

XeTeX: Fixes for \Umathchardef, \XeTeXinterchartoks, \pdfsavepos.

Dvips: Output encodings for bitmap fonts, for better copy/paste capabilities ( https://tug.org/TUGboat/tb40-2/tb125rokicki-type3search.pdf).

MacTeX: MacTeX and x86_64-darwin now require 10.13 or higher (High Sierra, Mojave, and Catalina); x86_64-darwinlegacy supports 10.6 and newer. MacTeX is notarized and command line programs have hardened runtimes, as now required by Apple for install packages. BibDesk and TeX Live Utility are not in MacTeX because they are not notarized, but a README ﬁle lists urls where they can be obtained.

tlmgr and infrastructure:

• New option tlmgr check texmfdbs, to check consistency of ls-R ﬁles and !! speciﬁcations for each tree.

• Use versioned ﬁlenames for the package containers, as in tlnet/archive/pkgname.rNNN.tar.xz; should be invisible to users, but a notable change in distribution.

• catalogue-date information no longer propagated from the TeX Catalogue, since it was often unrelated to package updates.

##### 9.1.18 2021

General:

• Donald Knuth’s changes for his 2021 tuneup of TeX and Metafont are incorporated ( https://tug.org/TUGboat/tb42-1/tb130knuth-tuneup21.pdf). They are also available on CTAN as the knuth-dist and knuth-local packages. As expected, the ﬁxes are for obscure cases and do not aﬀect any behavior in practice.

• Except in original TeX: if \tracinglostchars is set to 3 or more, missing characters will result in an error, not just a message in the log ﬁle, and the missing character code will be shown in hex.

• Except in original TeX: a new integer parameter \tracingstacklevels, if positive, and \tracingmacros is also positive, causes a preﬁx indicating the macro expansion depth to be output on each relevant log line (e.g., ~.. at depth 2). Also, macro logging is truncated at a depth the parameter value.

Aleph: The Aleph-based LaTeX format, named lamed, has been removed. The aleph binary itself is still included and supported.

LuaTeX:

• Lua 5.3.6.

• Callback for nesting level used in \tracingmacros, as generalized variant of the new \tracingstacklevels.

• Mark math glyphs as protected to prevent processing as text.

• Removed width/ic compensation for traditional math code path.

MetaPost:

• SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH environment variable support for reproducible output.

• Avoid wrong ﬁnal % in mpto.

• Document -T option, other ﬁxes to manual.

• Value of epsilon changed in binary and decimal modes, so mp_solve_rising_cubic works as expected.

pdfTeX:

• Dump \pdfglyphtounicode assignments in fmt ﬁle.

• Source: poppler support removed, as it was too hard to keep in sync with upstream. In native TL, pdfTeX has always used libs/xpdf, which is cut-down and adapted code from xpdf.

XeTeX: Fixes for math kerning.

Dvipdfmx:

• Ghostscript is now invoked safely by default; to override (assuming all input ﬁles are trusted), use -i dvipdfmx-unsafe.cfg. To use PSTricks with XeTeX, this is required, as in: xetex -output-driver="xdvipdfmx -i dvipdfmx-unsafe.cfg -q -E" ...

• Extended special syntax for color support.

• Specials for manipulating ExtGState.

• Compatibility specials pdfcolorstack and pdffontattr.

• Experimental support for dviluatex’s extended fnt_def.

• Support new feature of virtual font to fallback Japanese font deﬁnition.

Dvips:

• Default PostScript document title is now the basename of the input ﬁle, and can be overridden with the new option -title.

• Support new feature of virtual font to fallback Japanese font deﬁnition.

MacTeX: MacTeX and its new binary folder universal-darwin now require macOS 10.14 or higher (Mojave, Catalina, and Big Sur); the x86_64-darwin binary folder is no longer present. The x86_64-darwinlegacy binary folder, available only with the Unix install-tl, supports 10.6 and newer.

This is an important year for the Macintosh because Apple introduced ARM machines in November and will sell and support both ARM and Intel machines for many years. All programs in universal-darwin have executable code for both ARM and Intel. Both binaries are compiled from the same source code.

The additional programs Ghostscript, LaTeXiT, TeX Live Utility, and TeXShop are all universal and are signed with a hardened runtime, so all are included in MacTeX this year.

tlmgr and infrastructure:

• keep only one backup of the main repository’s texlive.tlpdb.

• even more portability across systems and Perl versions.

• tlmgr info reports new lcat-* and rcat-* ﬁelds for local vs. remote Catalogue data.

• full logging of subcommands moved to new log ﬁle texmf-var/web2c/tlmgr-commands.log.

#### 9.2 Present: 2022

General:

• New engine hitex, which outputs its own HINT format, designed especially for reading technical documents on mobile devices. HINT viewers for GNU/Linux, Windows, and Android are available separately from TeX Live.

• tangle, weave: support optional third argument to specify output ﬁle.

• Knuth’s program twill for making mini-indexes for original WEB programs now included.

Cross-engine extensions (except in original TeX, Aleph, and hiTeX):

• New primitive \showstream to redirect \show output to a ﬁle.

• New primitives \partokenname and \partokencontext allow overriding the name of the \par token emitted at blank lines, the end of vboxes, etc.

epTeX, eupTeX:

• New primitives: \lastnodefont, \suppresslongerror, \suppressoutererror, \suppressmathparerror.

• pdfTeX extension \vadjust pre now available.

LuaTeX:

• Support structured destinations from PDF 2.0.

• PNG /Smask for PDF 2.0.

• Variable font interface for luahbtex.

• Diﬀerent radical style defaults in mathdefaultsmode.

• Optionally block selected discretionary creation.

• Improvements for TrueType fonts implementation.

• More eﬃcient \fontdimen allocation.

• Ignore paragraphs with only a local par node followed by direction synchronization nodes.

MetaPost: Bug ﬁx for inﬁnite macro expansion.

pdfTeX:

• Support structured destinations from PDF 2.0.

• For letterspaced fonts, use explicit \fontdimen6 if speciﬁed.

• Always start a warning at the beginning of a line.

• For characters with autokern (\pdfappendkern and \pdfprependkern), still do protrusion; likewise, autokern both implicit and explicit hyphens.

pTeX et al.:

• Major update of pTeX to 4.0.0 to better support current LaTeX.

• New primitives \ptexlineendmode and \toucs.

• \ucs (formerly available in uptex, euptex) now available also in pTeX and epTeX.

• Distinguish 8-bit characters and Japanese characters as discussed in a TUGboat article by Hironori Kitagawa ( https://tug.org/TUGboat/tb41-3/tb129kitagawa-char.pdf).

XeTeX: New wrapper scripts xetex-unsafe and xelatex-unsafe for simpler invocation of documents requiring both XeTeX and PSTricks transparency operators, which is inherently unsafe (until and unless reimplementation in Ghostscript happens). For safety, use Lua(LA )TeX.

Dvipdfmx:

• Support for PSTricks without requiring -dNOSAFER, except for transparency.

• The -r option to set bitmap font resolution works again.

Dvips: By default, do not attempt automatic media adjustment for rotated paper sizes; the new option –landscaperotate re-enables.

upmendex: Experimental support for Arabic and Hebrew scripts; improved character classiﬁcation and language support.

Kpathsea: First path returned from kpsewhich -all is now the same as a regular (non-all) search.

tlmgr and infrastructure:

• use https for mirror.ctan.org by default.

• use TEXMFROOT instead of SELFAUTOPARENT for easier relocating.

• install-tl: if download or installation fails for a given package, automatically continue and later retry (once).

MacTeX: MacTeX and its binary folder universal-darwin require macOS 10.14 or higher (Mojave, Catalina, Big Sur, Monterey). The x86_64-darwinlegacy binary folder, available only with the Unix install-tl, supports 10.6 (Snow Leopard) and newer.

Platforms: No changes to platform support for this year (2022). However, for next year’s release (2023), we are planning to switch the Windows binaries from 32-bit to 64-bit. Unfortunately we cannot feasibly support both simultaneously.

#### 9.3 Future

We intend to continue to release new versions of TeX Live, and would like to provide more documentation, more programs, an ever-improved and better-checked tree of macros and fonts, and anything else TeX. This work is all done by volunteers in their spare time, and there is always more to do. Please see https://tug.org/texlive/contribute.html.

Please send corrections, suggestions, and oﬀers of help to:

Happy TeXing!